Jane Brailsford

Jane Brailsford


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Jane Esdon Malloch nasceu em 3 de abril de 1874 em Elderslie, Renfrewshire, um dos seis filhos de John Malloch, um fabricante escocês de algodão, e sua esposa, Margaret Marion McLeod. Uma garota inteligente, ela frequentou a Universidade de Glasgow, onde estudou grego com Gilbert Murray. Ela desenvolveu uma afeição apaixonada por Murray, mas ele era casado com Mary Henrietta Howard, filha de George Howard, 9º Conde de Carlisle.

De acordo com Bertrand Russell: "Ela foi uma estudante brilhante de Gilbert Murray, apaixonou-se por ele embora fosse casado e, finalmente, escreveu que iria para o diabo a menos que ele tivesse um caso com ela ... que o a única maneira de lidar com a situação era fazer uma coisa ou outra. Ou ele não deve ter nada a ver com ela ou ele deve concordar com o desejo dela. "

Em 1895 ela se juntou ao ramo do Partido Trabalhista Independente da universidade. Recentemente, foi estabelecido por Henry Brailsford após ouvir James Keir Hardie falar durante as Eleições Gerais de 1895. Outros membros incluíram Norman Leys, Ronald Montague Burrows e Alexander MacCallum Scott.

Seu biógrafo, FM Leventhal, argumentou que ela era "uma jovem obstinada ... ela possuía uma beleza notável, que não apenas a tornou o centro de atração de uma série de contemporâneos de graduação, mas mais tarde despertou o ardor de ..." Henry Nevinson e Wilfrid Scawen Blunt.

Um dos homens que se apaixonou por Jane foi Henry Brailsford, seu tutor de filosofia. Seus amigos o advertiram contra ela. Alexander MacCallum Scott acreditava que ela era uma neurótica que impediria Brailsford de realizar qualquer coisa na literatura. Outra amiga disse "ela não tinha coração e nunca amaria ninguém". Em dezembro de 1896, quando ela estava para deixar o Somerville College por um ano, ele a pediu em casamento. Dada a maneira como ela o vinha tratando, não foi surpresa quando ela o recusou.

Em abril de 1897, Henry Brailsford juntou-se à Legião Filelênica, uma força voluntária que lutava pelos gregos em sua luta contra a Turquia. Suas experiências de guerra deram-lhe o material para seu único romance, A vassoura do deus da guerra (1898). O romance trouxe Brailsford à atenção de C.P Scott, o editor do Manchester Guardiane, lembrando-se da recomendação anterior, ele o recrutou para investigar a turbulência em Creta.

Brailsford agora arranjou um encontro com Jane, contou-lhe sobre sua designação e pediu-lhe novamente em casamento. Desta vez ela disse sim. Seu biógrafo, F. Leventhal, argumentou: "Seus motivos para essa reversão repentina, após rejeitá-lo por quase dois anos, não são totalmente explicáveis. Seu pai morrera em julho ... e a casa de Elderslie foi vendida, deixando-a praticamente sem teto. .. Agora que ele estava ganhando reconhecimento como um correspondente estrangeiro, Brailsford deve ter parecido uma perspectiva mais atraente do que ele tinha sido como um professor de filosofia desempregado, especialmente para alguém tão ansioso para sacudir a poeira de Glasgow de seus pés ... Dada a ela repugnância para Brailsford, é provável que seu casamento nunca tenha sido consumado ou, em qualquer caso, que tenha sido virtualmente assexuado. " Bertrand Russell afirmou que Jane se casou com Brailsford "no entendimento de que não deveria haver relações sexuais por causa de seu amor por Gilbert Murray".

Eles se casaram em uma cerimônia civil em Glasgow em 29 de setembro de 1898, um dia antes de partirem para Creta. Jane disse a ele que não usaria aliança, pois era um sinal de escravidão. No ano seguinte ele se tornou o Manchester Guardian correspondente em Paris. Em seu retorno a Londres, Brailsford agora se tornava um escritor-líder do The Morning Leader. Mais tarde, ele se tornou um escritor líder no Notícias diárias. Além de contribuir para A estrela e o jornal semanal, A nação.

O casamento de Jane foi extremamente infeliz. Uma fonte afirmou que Jane insultou o marido por ser tão pouco atraente que ela ficou surpresa por ele se atrever a sair na sociedade. F. Leventhal argumentou: "Seu desprezo pelo marido derivava em parte do ciúme por seus dons intelectuais e habilidade literária ... Jane Brailsford tentou descobrir suas próprias saídas criativas, primeiro como romancista e depois como atriz, mas sem sucesso . Se ela foi impedida porque era mulher ou simplesmente porque, apesar da promessa anterior, ela não tinha talento, não está claro, mas seus esforços para construir uma reputação para si mesma, a não ser como auxiliar de seu marido e como participante ocasional em campanhas radicais provaram abortivo. "

Henry Nevinson foi um dos muitos homens que se apaixonaram por ela. Mais tarde, ele lembrou que, quando a viu pela primeira vez, ela estava usando um "vestido azul, sedoso e fino, com bata no pescoço e na cintura, pálido, fino ... Eu nunca vi nada tão parecido com uma flor, tão lamentavelmente lindo e, ao mesmo tempo, tão cheio de espírito e poder. " Ele fazia visitas regulares à casa dela, onde "ela era muito doce, com olhos de pomba, mas cheia de perigos", mas descobriu que ela às vezes expressava "um espírito zombeteiro". Jane enviou a Nevinson uma nota sobre sua "luta para resistir ao meu próprio desejo", mas o informou claramente de que ela estava no comando da situação: "Eu não sou um iceberg. Sou um animal selvagem, mas com um cérebro - e por isso eu veja como foi degradante para nós dois ... um mero corpo que eu não serei para ninguém. Você certamente pode encontrar em mim algo mais do que uma excitação física. Uma vez antes fui considerado assim por um homem e tomei isso como uma prova de sua inferioridade. "

Um amigo afirmou que Jane era "vaidosa com sua aparência ... e era assombrada pelo medo de se tornar feia com o passar dos anos". Henry Nevinson disse que "aos vinte e oito anos já tinha pavor da velhice". Sua cunhada mais tarde lembrou que ela "se mataria se algum dia perdesse a beleza".

Jane Brailsford foi uma grande defensora do sufrágio feminino. Ela era membro da National Union of Suffrage Societies. No entanto, em 1906, frustrada com a falta de sucesso do NUWSS, ela se juntou à União Política e Social das Mulheres (WSPU), uma organização criada por Emmeline Pankhurst e suas três filhas, Christabel Pankhurst, Sylvia Pankhurst e Adela Pankhurst. O objetivo principal era obter, não o sufrágio universal, o voto para todas as mulheres e homens acima de uma certa idade, mas votos para as mulheres, "na mesma base que os homens".

Em julho de 1909, Brailsford escreveu para A nação argumentando: "Eu nunca estive em contato com um corpo de pessoas tão totalmente altruístas como os membros da União Social e Política das Mulheres. Esta devoção absoluta à sua causa, uma devoção que não pára por nada e não teme nada - está agindo como um ímã, atraindo apoiadores lenta e continuamente de todo o país. Nada pode parar este movimento. "

Henry Brailsford discordou das táticas militantes da WSPU, mas acreditava que as mulheres deveriam ter o voto e, junto com Laurence Housman, Charles Corbett, Henry Nevinson, Israel Zangwill, CE Joad, Hugh Franklin, Charles Mansell-Moullin, foi o fundador da Men's Men's Liga para o sufrágio feminino. Evelyn Sharp, membro da WSPU, argumentou posteriormente: "É impossível avaliar muito os sacrifícios que eles (Henry Nevinson e Laurence Housman) e HN Brailsford, FW Pethick Lawrence, Harold Laski, Israel Zangwill, Gerald Gould, George Lansbury e muitos outros feito para manter nosso movimento livre da sugestão de uma guerra sexual. "

Brailsford juntou-se a um grupo de sufragistas, incluindo Constance Lytton e Emily Wilding Davison, que resolveu cometer atos de violência para protestar contra a alimentação forçada. Em 9 de novembro de 1909, ela foi presa em Newcastle após atacar uma barricada com um machado. Ela foi enviada para a prisão por 30 dias. Depois de participar de outra manifestação em 21 de novembro de 1911, ela foi condenada a sete dias na prisão de Holloway. Seu amigo, Henry Nevinson, escreveu cartas ao Home Office e um artigo em The English Review, isso garantiu que ela não fosse alimentada à força e que ela fosse liberada após três dias.

O verão de 1913 viu uma nova escalada da violência da WSPU. Em julho, as sufragistas tentaram incendiar as casas de dois membros do governo que se opunham ao voto feminino. Essas tentativas falharam, mas logo depois, uma casa que estava sendo construída para David Lloyd George, o Chanceler do Tesouro, foi seriamente danificada por sufragistas. Em seguida, pavilhões de críquete, quadras de corrida e clubes de golfe foram incendiados.

Alguns líderes da WSPU, como Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, discordaram desta campanha de incêndio criminoso. Quando Pethick-Lawrence se opôs, ela foi expulsa da organização. Brailsford se juntou a Elizabeth Robins, Mary Blathwayt e Louisa Garrett Anderson para mostrar sua desaprovação ao deixar de ser ativo na WSPU.

Em 4 de maio de 1913, os Brailsfords concordaram em se separar. Jane Brailsford, que se mudou para um apartamento em Warwick Crescent, disse a Henry Nevinson que "há outra mulher mais amada", mas ele não se convenceu dessa história. Brailsford a visitava regularmente e, de acordo com Wilfrid Scawen Blunt, ele lhe disse: "Ele conquistou pouco, desfrutou pouco e não terá nada que viverá depois dele. Seu casamento foi um fracasso e ele não tem filhos."

O casal voltou a morar junto em 1914. Eles discordaram sobre a Primeira Guerra Mundial, pois ele era membro da União de Controle Democrático, enquanto ela era uma apoiadora patriótica do esforço de guerra. Nevinson a conheceu em abril de 1915. Ele registrou em seu diário: "A Sra. Brailsford me encontrou no Green: tornou-se muito robusta e deliberadamente rude e desagradável nas maneiras. É provavelmente infeliz em todos os aspectos, diferindo de seu marido em todos os pontos - paz e guerra, etc. Ela acha que a vingança por supostas atrocidades deve ser exigida da Alemanha e apóia a política de esmagamento. Ele é por termos fáceis para evitar vingança futura. "

Clifford Allen conheceu Jane Brailsford pela primeira vez em 1919: "Ela está empolgada e nervosa, ansiosa para falar muito e rapidamente para evitar pausas para observação; muitas vezes ela brilha de uma forma horrivelmente brilhante, e então parece quase louca e secretamente taciturna . Eu não conseguia entender que papel o sexo desempenhava em sua composição; poderia ter acontecido com tanto vigor no passado, mas não o fazia agora. Sua relação com Brailsford parecia surpreendente e maliciosa ou totalmente impessoal ... Ela era como uma figura assombrada de algum romance estrangeiro ... Estou convencido de que há uma boa chance dessa mulher enlouquecer, quando toda a tragédia de sua vida voltará de repente para ela e então ela pode muito bem matar Brailsford. "

Henry Brailsford deixou a esposa pela última vez em 1921. Seu biógrafo, F. Leventhal, argumentou que: "Ela (Jane Brailsford) mais tarde sofreu de depressão severa e um colapso físico, possivelmente precipitando o beber descontrolado que a destruiu anos depois. o casamento como forma de subjugação, nunca escondeu a repugnância pelo marido, a quem tratava com desprezo. Por insistência dela não tinham filhos ... Em 1921 separaram-se definitivamente, embora ela se recusasse a aceitar o divórcio. final da década de 1920, Jane Brailsford, incapacitada pelo alcoolismo, estava morando sozinha em Kew, Londres. "

Jane Brailsford morreu de cirrose hepática em 9 de abril de 1937 em 385 High Road, Chiswick.

Nunca antes estive em contato com um grupo de pessoas tão abnegadas como os membros da União Política e Social das Mulheres. Nada pode impedir esse movimento.

Os magistrados me condenaram por "comportamento desordeiro com a intenção de perturbar a paz" e me amarraram com a soma de cinquenta libras e duas fianças de vinte e cinco libras cada, a serem cumpridas por doze meses; na inadimplência, prisão de uma boca na segunda divisão. Eu, é claro, não tive opção de encontrar fianças por doze meses e fui condenado à prisão de um mês. Minha companheira, Srta. Davison, foi dispensada, pois literalmente não fizera nada.

A Sra. Brailsford, que atacou a barricada com um machado, também teve a opção de ser amarrada, o que ela, é claro, recusou, com a alternativa de um mês de prisão na segunda divisão.

Fomos colocados novamente em uma van, mas só tínhamos um caminho curto para dirigir. Fomos conduzidos a uma passagem da prisão onde o governador veio e falou conosco. Ele foi muito cortês e implorou que não fizéssemos greve de fome. Aí veio a matrona, uma mulher charmosa e muito requintada, que andava com bengala, manca. Miss Davison chefiava nossa pequena mão de doze; quando ela foi dispensada, a Srta. Dorothy Pethick, a irmã mais nova da Sra. Pethick-Lawrence, era nossa cabeça e falou por nós. Seu rosto tinha toda a beleza que o frescor, a juventude e a graça podiam dar e, com tudo isso, para sua idade - ela tinha 27 anos - lá

foi uma força maravilhosa sobre isso. Ela falou educadamente com o governador, mas de uma forma muito determinada. Ele não podia fazer o suficiente por nós ... Finalmente, a Sra. Brailsford e eu fomos levados para diferentes celas no andar térreo, onde fomos completamente separados dos outros.

Na segunda manhã, quarta-feira, 13 de outubro, quando os médicos chegaram, fiquei no canto da minha cela com os braços cruzados e os dedos presos nas narinas e na boca. Era a melhor posição que conhecia para eles não poderem me alimentar pelo nariz ou pela boca sem antes ter uma luta considerável. Eles vieram, e depois que vi que eles não tinham nenhum tubo, saí do meu canto e deixei que os dois olhassem para o meu coração. Eles bateram, cada um deles por sua vez, e sentiram meu pulso também. Então eles pareceram estar de acordo e saíram. Eu disse a eles: "Vocês pareciam intrigados com o meu coração; posso contar-lhes a respeito, se quiserem". Mas eles haviam se decidido sobre algo e não queriam nenhuma ajuda minha.

Uma carcereira entrou e anunciou que eu tinha sido solto, por causa do estado do meu coração! Embora isso fosse bastante evidente pela visita do médico externo, eu não tinha percebido. Juntei minhas coisas e saí. Liguei para a Sra. Brailsford; ela também foi libertada.

Sra. Ele é para termos fáceis para evitar vingança futura.

Ela (Jane Brailsford) está animada e nervosa, ansiosa para falar muito e rapidamente para evitar pausas para observação; ela frequentemente brilha de uma maneira horrivelmente brilhante, e então parece quase louca e secretamente taciturna. Estou convencido de que há uma boa chance dessa mulher enlouquecer, quando toda a tragédia de sua vida voltará repentinamente para ela e então ela pode muito bem matar Brailsford. "


Henry Noel Brailsford (25 de dezembro de 1873 e 23 de março de 1958) foi o jornalista de esquerda britânico mais prolífico da primeira metade do século XX.

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Os pais e avós de Columbine

Meus agradecimentos a Karen Haseldine - que é casada com um sobrinho-bisneto de Adeline Wells (nee Columbine) - por sua ajuda e conselho na compilação desta seção.

Esta página concentra-se nos avós de Adeline e nos avós James e Ann Columbine, e depois em seus pais, John e Elizabeth Columbine.

James e Ann Columbine.

Adeline escreve & # 8230 & # 8230. Meu avô paterno, que morava em Mansfield, tinha dois cômodos cheios de armações de meia e empregava um homem para cada uma. Ele levava o trabalho todas as semanas para uma empresa em Nottingham e certamente ganhava uma vida muito confortável, mas não posso dizer se seus homens faziam o mesmo.

O avô paterno de Adeline foi o knitter James Columbine que se casou com Ann Goodall na igreja paroquial de Mansfield Woodhouse em 7 de dezembro de 1812.

Seu filho John nasceu em Mansfield em 15 de julho de 1823 e foi batizado na Capela Metodista Wesleyana em 11 de agosto de 1823.

Em 1832 White’s History, Gazetteer and Directory of Nottinghamshire, James recebe uma menção como um knitter de "Ratcliffgate" em Mansfield e está no mesmo Directory de 1844 no mesmo endereço.

James e Ann Columbine continuaram a viver em Mansfield com a filha Ann, que se casou em 1850 com o ferreiro e montador Andrew Valance.

Ann Columbine morreu em dezembro de 1864, aos 72 anos, e o marido James em 1881, aos 85.

John e Elizabeth Columbine

Em 20 de fevereiro de 1849 e ainda morando em Ratcliffe Gate, John Columbine casou-se com Elizabeth Wells na St Peter’s ParishChurch, Mansfield, onde sua esposa havia sido batizada. Ela também era natural de Mansfield, filha do cortador de pedras Solomon e Jane (nee Brailsford).

Em 1851, o casal morava em Back Lane East em Mansfield, com o filho mais novo, Samuel Webster Columbine, que morreu naquele ano, pouco antes de a família se mudar para Ilkeston. Webster era um nome de família, sendo o nome de solteira da avó materna de John e, como Brailsford, era usado com bastante frequência na família Columbine.

Mesmo antes da mudança de Mansfield, John tinha conexões com Ilkeston.
Ele costumava visitar a cidade como um pregador durante o dia na capela Wesleyan Old Cricket Ground na South Street, e pernoitava na casa de Samuel Carrier na East Street, quase em frente ao Wine Vaults.
Após a mudança de Mansfield, John e Elizabeth tiveram vários filhos, todos nascidos em Ilkeston….

John júnior, nascido em 22 de fevereiro de 1852.

Elizabeth Adeline, nascido em 2 de outubro de 1854.

Lucy Eleanor, nascido em 13 de janeiro de 1857. (falecido em 6 de julho de 1858, de scarlatina).

William Brailsford, nascido em 24 de abril de 1859.

Martin Webster, nascido em 21 de maio de 1861.

Jabez, nascido em 24 de agosto de 1863, (falecido em 4 de maio de 1865).

Durante este tempo, John sênior foi descrito de várias maneiras como guarda-livros, gerente ou balconista em uma fábrica de renda assim como rendilhadora. Em meados de 1850 e ainda na East Street, ele também anunciava seus serviços como agente de William e Henry Sills, pedreiros e construtores de White Bear Lane em Mansfield, uma empresa que oferecia ‘O melhor Mansfield Stone em condições razoáveis’.

Esta é a família em 1861 no Carrier’s Buildings em Queens Terrace, na South Street.

Dez anos depois, a família estava na 7 Queen’s Street, agora acompanhada pela sogra de John, Jane Wells.

O trabalho de John exigiu uma mudança para Nottingham e ele fez sua primeira aparição no registro eleitoral lá para o período que começou em 31 de outubro de 1880, em 10 Ossington Villas perto da North Sherwood Street.

O Censo de 1881 mostra a família em 10 Ossington Villas.

Embora John sênior tenha deixado Ilkeston, ele ainda possuía propriedades lá e em maio de 1883 ele tentou vender suas seis casas em Chapel St East (Lower Chapel Street). Eles foram colocados em leilão, mas retirados quando o lance não ultrapassou £ 800. Naquela época, eles foram descritos como ocupando 1.108 jardas quadradas de terra, rendendo £ 70 de renda anual de aluguel.
E na época de sua morte em 1906, ele ainda não tinha conseguido vendê-los. (veja seu testamento abaixo)
No mesmo leilão, John Júnior também tentou vender cinco casas na mesma rua & # 8212 764 jardas quadradas e £ 58 10s de renda anual de aluguel & # 8212, mas com o mesmo resultado. Eles também foram retirados .. a licitação não ultrapassou £ 710.

John sénior permaneceu nos cadernos eleitorais no mesmo endereço até 1889 e depois regressou a Ilkeston para viver em 6 Albert Street com a sua esposa Elizabeth.

Em 25 de fevereiro de 1899, o seguinte apareceu na coluna Casamentos do Nottinghamshire Guardian & # 8212

“COLOMBINA - POÇOS - Casamento de Ouro. Em 20 de fevereiro de 1849, na Igreja de São Pedro, Mansfield, Notts., John Columbine para Elizabeth Wells, ambos de Mansfield, agora residindo na Albert-street, Ilkeston ”.

John morreu em sua casa na Albert Street em 3 de março de 1906, aos 82 anos. Sua morte foi registrada pelo filho Martin, que então vivia na Dale Street.
Ele foi enterrado no Cemitério Geral de Nottingham em 6 de março de 1906, no túmulo 15749A.
Elizabeth Columbine morreu na casa da família em 13 de maio de 1914, aos 91 anos. Ela foi enterrada com John no mesmo túmulo do Cemitério Geral.
(O primeiro enterro nesta trama foi o de sua neta Winifred Adeline Wells em 1890 & # 8230 veja abaixo)

Uma cópia do testamento de John Columbine, 1º de abril de 1904. ( Karen )

Eu, John Columbine, do número 6, Albert Street, Ilkeston no condado de Derby, por meio deste revogo todos os testamentos e instrumentos testamentários feitos até agora por mim e declaro que este é o meu último testamento. Eu nomeio meus dois filhos, John Columbine e William Brailsford Columbine, ambos da cidade de Nottingham, (doravante chamados de meus curadores) para serem os executores e curadores deste meu testamento.

Eu dou aos meus curadores todos os meus bens, consistindo em duas casas de propriedade perfeita, com acessórios para situar e sendo os números 6 e 7 Albert Street, Ilkeston acima mencionado e seis casas de propriedade perfeita e seus acessórios situados e sendo 33, 34, 35, 36, 37 e 38 Chapel Street, Ilkeston já citada. Com a confiança de receber os aluguéis e rendimentos dos mesmos e com e fora de tais aluguéis e rendimentos para pagar todas as minhas despesas funerárias e testamentárias e dívidas e os juros devidos e a vencer em qualquer hipoteca existente em minhas ditas propriedades no momento de meu falecimento . E pagar todas as despesas necessárias para manter tais propriedades em reparo e aptas para habitação e, após os pagamentos mencionados acima, pagar o restante de tais aluguéis e renda para minha esposa Elizabeth durante sua vida.

E instruo meus curadores a permitirem à minha dita esposa Elizabeth, durante sua vida, o uso de minha mobília e pertences domésticos dentro e ao redor de minha residência na época de minha morte. E imediatamente após a morte de minha esposa Elizabeth, eu instruo meus curadores a vender a totalidade de minha propriedade perfeita antes mencionada e os referidos móveis e objetos domésticos e com e fora de tais rendimentos da venda para pagar a hipoteca realizada no anterior mencionou seis casas em Chapel Street, Ilkeston supracitadas pelo Sr. H Thorpe advogado Market Street Ilkeston e também para pagar o saque a descoberto de cem libras esterlinas (£ 100) e juros sobre as mesmas, tido pela empresa de J & amp C Columbine de Albert Street, Ilkeston supracitado do Nottingham Joint Stock Bank Limited de Ilkeston, sobre a segurança das escrituras de minhas duas casas em Albert Street, Ilkeston supracitado.

E no caso de o descoberto e os juros mencionados acima chegarem a um quarto ou mais de um quarto do produto da venda de minha propriedade, então eu instruo meus curadores a pagar o restante do produto da venda de minha propriedade para meus dois filhos os ditos John columbine e William Brailsford Columbine e minha filha Elizabeth Adeline Wells, esposa de William Alfred Wells, do número 34 da St Johns Mill Road, Eastbourne em partes iguais. Mas no caso de o descoberto e os juros mencionados acima representarem menos de um quarto do produto da venda da minha propriedade, então instruo meus fiduciários a pagarem a diferença entre o valor do descoberto e dos juros mencionados acima e o valor de um quarta parte dos rendimentos da venda de minha propriedade para meu filho Martin Webster Columbine, do número 4 da Stanley Street, Ilkeston, citada em parcelas quinzenais de duas libras esterlinas (£ 2).

E eu instruo meus curadores a pagar o restante do produto da venda de minha propriedade para meus dois filhos, os referidos John Columbine e William Brailsford Columbine e minha filha, a referida Elizabeth Adeline Wells, em partes iguais E em caso de morte de qualquer um dos meus ditos quatro filhos, antes da execução deste meu Testamento, a parte do falecido deverá pertencer à parte legítima da emissão do falecido e parte igualmente. Em testemunho do que, eu cheguei a esta minha vontade, neste primeiro dia de abril de mil novecentos e quatro.

Assinado pelo referido João Columbine, o Testador, como e para sua última Vontade e Testamento, na presença de nós dois presentes ao mesmo tempo, que em sua presença a seu pedido e na presença um do outro, subscrevemos aqui nossos nomes como testemunhas.

Walter Watson White, 17, Burns Street, Ilkeston. Gerente de fábrica
Edward Ambrose Henshaw 8, Graham Street, Ilkeston. Escriturário de meias
No dia 12 de março de 1909, a homologação deste testamento foi concedida em Derby a John Columbine e William Brailsford Columbine, os executores

Elizabeth Adeline Wells foi a segunda criança sobrevivente da família e mais detalhes sobre ela podem ser encontrados na próxima página.

Tio James Columbine e família.

James Columbine junior, o irmão mais velho de John, nasceu por volta de 1820 em Mansfield.

Ele se casou com Sarah Percival, (a filha ilegítima de Elizabeth?) Na Capela Unitarista Mansfield em 1846.

Como seu pai, James Júnior era um tricotador de estruturas e continuou a morar em Ratcliffe Gate, Mansfield após seu casamento.

Vários de seus filhos nasceram lá até que a família se mudou para Ilkeston em meados da década de 1850, onde a filha Sarah nasceu em novembro de 1857. Ela foi seguida por Rebecca (1860), Herbert (1862), Martha (1865) e Eliza Ann ( 1866). Havia pelo menos nove filhos na família.

Sábado, 29 de junho de 1878, na casa de Columbine em Awsworth Road & # 8230 e logo depois das 3 horas & # 8217 da manhã James acordou & # 8230 (sua filha estava gritando com ele ??) & # 8230 para descobrir que sua esposa não estava no quarto.
Ele estava muito inquieto.
No passado recente, Sarah havia sido alojada temporariamente como paciente duas vezes no Asilo Mickleover Lunatic. E nas últimas semanas sua mente estivera muito perturbada.
James se vestiu e desceu correndo as escadas. Uma rápida busca pela casa não revelou nada antes de James sair pelos fundos e ver que a tampa de pedra que cobria a cisterna de água mole havia sido removida. Quando a rendeira se aproximou dela, viu o corpo de Sarah, vestindo apenas saia e camisa, caído na água, de bruços, quase morto.
No inquérito realizado no Commercial Inn em Awsworth Road no mesmo dia, foi revelado que Sarah havia anteriormente ameaçado se afogar.
O júri do inquérito emitiu um veredicto de & # 8216 encontrado afogado em uma cisterna de água .. insanidade temporária & # 8217.
Sarah tinha 56 anos.
O incidente foi relatado no Pioneer, bem como em vários outros jornais locais (Derby Mercury e Nottinghamshire Guardian, por exemplo) e em outros lugares.

James continuou a morar em Ilkeston e morreu em 36 Abbey Street em 15 de fevereiro de 1894, aos 73 anos.
Naquela época ele morava com sua filha Sarah e a família dela. Ela se casou em maio de 1875 com o mineiro de carvão de Ilkeston John Stevenson, filho mais velho do mineiro Joseph e Sarah (nascido Scattergood).
Outra de suas filhas & # 8212 Mary Columbine & # 8212 casou-se com George Wake Beardsley no dia de Natal de 1874. Ele era filho ilegítimo de John Wombell, impressor e editor do Ilkeston Pioneer, e Maria Beardsley.


Hoje em Londres & # 8217s história radical: tentativa de sufragista de queimar o elegante Dulwich College fracassa, 1913.

& # 8220Dulwich College, a famosa escola no subúrbio ao sul de Londres, foi incendiada em dois lugares na madrugada desta manhã, e literatura sufragista pregada em árvores na vizinhança com alfinetes de mulher & # 8217s é aceita como prova de que um militante sufragete & # 8220arson esquadrão & # 8221 foi responsável pelo crime. & # 8221

Em 1912-13, a campanha militante pelo sufrágio feminino acelerou.

Década de agitação legal, vários anos de escalada de ação direta, assédio de políticos, quebra de janelas e greves de fome na prisão sem conseguir mudar o peso do establishment masculino, a liderança dominada por Pankhurst da União Política e Social das Mulheres preparada para virar para incêndio criminoso.

Em julho de 1912, Christabel Pankhurst começou a organizar uma campanha secreta de incêndio criminoso. As sufragistas tentaram incendiar as casas de dois membros do governo que se opunham ao voto feminino. Essas tentativas falharam, mas logo depois, uma casa que estava sendo construída para David Lloyd George, o Chanceler do Tesouro, foi seriamente danificada por sufragistas.

Um dos primeiros incendiários foi Mary Richardson. Mais tarde, ela se lembrou da primeira vez que ela ateou fogo a um prédio: & # 8220Peguei as coisas dela e fui para a mansão. A massa de uma das janelas do andar térreo era velha e quebrou com facilidade, e logo eu tinha quebrado uma grande vidraça. Quando entrei na escuridão, foi um momento horrível. O lugar era assustadoramente estranho e escuro como breu, cheirando a umidade e decomposição. Mas eu sabia como fazer uma fogueira & # 8211 Eu havia construído muitas fogueiras em meus dias de juventude - e essa parte do trabalho era simples e rápida. Eu derramei o líquido inflamável sobre tudo, depois fiz um longo pavio de algodão torcido, ensopando-o também enquanto o desenrolava e lentamente voltei para a janela por onde havia entrado. & # 8221

Alguns líderes da WSPU, como Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, discordaram dessa campanha de incêndio criminoso. Quando Pethick-Lawrence se opôs, ela foi expulsa da organização. Outros como Elizabeth Robins, Jane Brailsford, Laura Ainsworth, Eveline Haverfield e Louisa Garrett Anderson mostraram sua desaprovação ao deixar de ser ativos na WSPU e Hertha Ayrton, Lilias Ashworth Hallett, Janie Allan e Elizabeth Garrett Anderson pararam de fornecer os fundos necessários para a organização . Sylvia Pankhurst também rompeu definitivamente com a WSPU e concentrou seus esforços em ajudar o Partido Trabalhista a aumentar seu apoio em Londres.

Em 1913, a campanha de incêndio criminoso da WSPU aumentou e as estações ferroviárias, pavilhões de críquete, quadras de corrida e clubes de golfe foram incendiados. Slogans em favor do sufrágio feminino foram cortados e queimados no gramado. As sufragistas também cortaram fios de telefone e destruíram cartas despejando produtos químicos em caixas de correio. As mulheres responsáveis ​​eram frequentemente apanhadas e, uma vez na prisão, faziam greve de fome.

Este é o contexto para a tentativa de atear fogo ao Dulwich College em 5 de setembro de 1913 & # 8230, pelo qual ninguém jamais foi preso ou condenado.

Is it possible there was a South London suffragette arson squad active in 1913…? St Catherine’s Church on Telegraph Hill, New Cross, had been set on fire in May – there were widespread rumours this was also a suffragette job, though nothing was ever proved. Before that Lilian Lenton and Olive Wharry had been arrested and convicted of setting fire to the tea gardens at Kew gardens in February 1913.

Founded in 1618 by actor (and Bankside brothel-owner) Edward Alleyn, Dulwich College is an independent school, which costs £6300 a term or £12-13,000 a term for boarders… If originally founded “to educate 12 poor scholars as the foundation of God’s Gift”, over the centuries it became one of the poshest schools in the London area. It provided a hefty contingent of students to scab during the 1926 General Strike…

It’s now the biggest independent school in the country, which selects boys from the brightest 20 per cent and spends almost £8,000 a year on each pupil. Dulwich College ensures that 95 per cent of its pupils get A-C passes at GCSE and sends 95 per cent of sixth-formers to top universities – 12 or so pupils go to Oxbridge each year.

It’s the preserve of the rich. Compared to local comprehensives it commands massive resources giving the rich kids who attend a leg up to maintaining the class system for another generation. It is funded by the Dulwich Estate, which owns a huge swathe of property over this part of South London, has massive playing fields and top class facilities, but luckily is a charity so avoids a lot of tax. The estate funds Dulwich College, Alleyn’s and James Allen’s Girls’ (or JAGS), which shared £5,815,840 of moneys from the Estate in the most recent year for which there are figures (to March 31, 2015). These are also registered charities.

Earlier this year a few hundred people gathered in Herne Hill, to demonstrate against the behaviour of the Dulwich Estate. The Estate owns 1,500 prime acres of Dulwich and the surrounding area, including the freeholds on 600 flats and maisonettes and the vast majority of the shops and pubs as well as local amenities. The focus of the demo was the closure of a much-loved toy shop, Just Williams, forced out of business by a 70% rent rise combined with a more general concern about the threat of similar rent rises forcing out other shops. They are likely to be replaced by ones which, to pay those increased rents, and will be prohibitively expensive to shop in. The Estate has also proposed selling off a piece of land used as a play area by children at the local Judith Kerr Primary school for flats, and left a popular pub, the Half Moon, closed and empty for over two years. Now that they finally have a proposal for the pub they seem set to accept, it does not include a live music room, which has been a part of it for decades and which locals want re-instated.

Maybe we don’t burn it down… but we should definitely take it over… So much that could be cone to share out the resources a bit…


Jane Brailsford - History


THOMAS BOULTBEE, RECTOR OF BRAILSFORD 1689 - 1780
This portrait was done when Thomas was aged 85.

The Rector of Brailsford lost his wife in 1750, and on a slab within the Communion rails he placed this inscription over her remains:-

On the 11th of March in the same year, the Rector's venerable father had breathed his last. Scarcely could he have seen the earth closed over those remains in Breedon Church when on 19th of the same month his wife was called away. It must not be put down to the poverty of his invention but rather to the affection which recognized kindred excellence in the two best loved women, that he inscribed in that sad year on his mother's and on his wife's graves the same high eulogium. In plain English he wrote on the slab at Breedon over Mary his mother In piety and virtue inferior to none whereas at Brailsford in more dignified Latin he recorded of Lucy the Rector's wife Pietate et virtute nulli secunda. The Rector survived his wife many years and the inscription on a small slab near that which marks her grave will tell the remainder of the tale. [The Rector's memorial below is incorrect in stating that he was Rector for 63 years. It was 66 years -- see also our note above -- Thomas was Rector from 1714 until his death in 1780 at Stordon Grange on the 27th of October . It appears that wrong information was given for the preparation of this inscription. Ed.]

Sacred to the memory
of the Rev Mr
Thomas Boultbee A.M.
Rector of this Parish
63 anos
He died the 29th day of
October Anno Dom 1780
In the 92nd year of his age
Editorial Note:

The particular purpose here is to set out the full record of what is now known about the Rector of Brailsford's children, as opposed to what TPB wrote about them which, as we found, is incomplete. However, before we enlarge on this, since this editorial note contains the first reference in the new History to Bishops' Transcripts which are here of crucial value, some explanation of what they are is appropriate.
In 1538, during the reign of King Henry VIII and at the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries, parochial clergy were thereafter, by law, required to keep a register of all baptisms, marriages and deaths in their parish, although many surviving such registers were not actually started until long after that date. Beginning in 1598, copies were required to be sent by the incumbent to his Bishop, and these became known as Bishops' Transcripts. Nowadays they can be a valuable source of information where original registers have been lost, destroyed by enemy action 1939-1945, or damaged and illegible for some other reason such as storage in damp conditions. The Transcripts only record, however, what they were sent from parishes -- a less than conscientious parish priest may not always have passed on his records regularly, or a new incumbent may not have realised there were gaps. Consequently the Transcripts do not always constitute a correct and continuous alternative record.
Editorial perusal of the Brailsford Transcripts has revealed that Thomas and Lucy had ten children, three sons and seven daughters, whereas TPB only noted two sons and four daughters. (It has also become clear that the parents' marriage was earlier than had been previously thought by family historians. While we do not, as yet, know where it took place, it must have been in 1714 when Thomas, as he says above , first came to Brailsford.)
The Editors have felt that they should at least attempt an explanation of how and why TPB's record of the Rector's children was incomplete to the extent it was, although we have generally been reluctant to put forward speculations and surmises in the new History unless we thought them reasonable and likely. How far some of what follows may be accepted as such we leave our readers to decide for themselves.
Before we properly begin our explanation we set out below a table of the Rector's children as now known, indicating with an asterisk those whom TPB did not mention.


It seems certain that TPB had consulted neither the Brailsford Church Register nor the relevant Bishops' Transcripts, though he must have visited Brailsford Church at least once when he copied down the memorial inscriptions to the Rector, his wife, and the daughters Elizabeth and Martha. We think a partial answer to the problem of his omission of four children lies in his remark, see above, that The Rector was well remembered by his grandchildren living far on into the present century. While all of them would have remembered him in their youth, nevertheless three were dead before TPB was even born (1818) and only three granddaughters can be regarded as living well into the 19th century -- Mary and Jane who both died in 1840, and Frances who died in 1845. The grandson Joseph, though he died in 1821, knew his aunt Martha well enough to be appointed executor of her Will. Jane, after her mother's death in 1789, was taken under Martha's wing. She -- Jane -- was Joseph's favourite sister and was later close to her nephew Thomas, who was Joseph's son and TPB's father.
It seems to us most likely that the, albeit as it turned out very incomplete, chain of recollection going back to the Rector's children, went from Martha to the grandchildren Joseph and Jane and from them -- probably mostly from Jane -- to TPB's father. While TPB, as a young man, must have had a general idea of his own family's descent from the Rector, we also think he did not begin to be seriously interested until he started working on the History, and at that time his principal source of information was his father. By then, in the early 1860's, Martha had been dead for more than 50 years, Joseph for forty, and Jane for twenty. TPB, in good faith, wrote down what he had been told with no reason to suppose that it was not the whole story.
If we may consider Martha as an early conduit of information, we can easily accept that the very existence of her infant sister Lucy could have been forgotten, with her birth 20 years before that of Martha. The daughters Mary and Anna Maria pose more of a problem, their birth dates also only being known from the Transcripts not from TPB, and therefore apparently not having been passed on. There is the possibility that they both married very young, Mary before Martha was born, and moved away some distance, losing contact with the family. TPB did know the birth date of Sarah and the death date of Frances but no more. Sarah we now know did marry, and possibly also Frances -- the latter's early death when Martha was then only ten years old -- may have contributed to lack of knowledge of her. It seems significant to us that Elizabeth was the only daughter to have had a memorial to her in the Church during her father's lifetime.
The problems arising from little being known about four of the daughters are difficult enough, but an even more perplexing question now confronts us. How was it that TPB apparently did not know that the Rector had a son named Joseph and knew no more of the brother John than his birth date, and did his father Thomas really know nothing of them either? On the face of it, this would seem to be very unlikely, but we have been forced to the conclusion that it was so. TPB's father Thomas was not born until 1793, and as a young boy was living with his parents on a farm at Bunny Nottinghamshire, and his aunt Jane at Bunny Park, seat of her husband, Sir Thomas Parkyns. When hardly more than a schoolboy, Thomas was sent away to Liverpool in 1807 to make his fortune, according to JB, remaining far away in the North for many years. We have mentioned above that he was close to his aunt Jane (see page ) and the period when this was happening must have been before he went to Liverpool. Memories, sixty years or so later, of what she may have chosen to tell him of family history may be excused if they were not complete.
However, it is our opinion that all future mention of Joseph in the Rector's family was discouraged, perhaps even forbidden, at an early date around 1747, even his sister Martha later suppressing what she must have known, or if she did speak about him to her nephew and niece, Joseph and Jane, insisting that it went no further. We think that a serious upheaval did happen in the Rector's family and that it concerned Joseph, otherwise it is impossible to believe that all memory of him in the family should have been obliterated, and that his existence would not have been known to the Rector's grandchildren.
The foregoing is our general explanation of TPB's omissions of four of the Rector's children. More detailed comments specific to Joseph and John will be found in our notes which follow. These include all that TPB wrote and our editorial additions.

The Rector's children were:-

  1. Mary born in 1715. See above for further notes.
  2. Lucy born and died in 1717. She only lived two weeks.
  3. Frances, TPB said of her - of another daughter Frances nothing is known but her death in 1747 . The Transcripts give her birth date of 1720. See above for further notes.
  4. Anna Maria omitted by TPB. See above for further notes.
  5. Thomas -- All that we have from TPB about sons is -- The Rector of Brailsford had two sons, Thomas and John, born respectively in 1724 and 1731. It had long been decided that Thomas was to inherit the tenancy of Stordon Grange and he is the subject of TPB's Chapter VI. For John, see below.
  6. Joseph -- Some while before his appearance in the Bishops' Transcripts, we had become aware of his existence, hitherto unknown, which we also owe to Dennis Heathcote. His researches showed that Joseph had been born in 1726 and had matriculated at Lincoln College, Oxford (his father's old College) in 1746, having gone there from Repton School. The records of both College and School give him as son of Thomas Boultbee of Brailsford, Clerk ("in Holy Orders" is inferred). Joseph married Anna Maria Burgin on August 15, 1747 and had at least two children, William e Dorothy Burgin. Anna Maria was born in 1724 and died in 1798. Later he was farming at Worthington, a village very near Stordon Grange. Joseph died in 1785, and these are the facts of his life as we know them at present.
    He received a good school education followed by University. As Thomas, his elder brother, was to take over Stordon Grange, our surmise is that Joseph was expected and wished by his father to take Holy Orders, University education being the usual preliminary to entering the Church. However, we further surmise that either he rebelled against the parental wish, or made a marriage very soon after leaving Oxford, and at an age much younger than would have been normal, which was not approved of by his father. Perhaps a combination of these two factors led to Joseph becoming a kind of family non-person, in disgrace and not to be even mentioned in the family circle, eventually being provided with a farm where he could be under the eye of brother Thomas. Defiance of parental wishes and authority, even for grown-up children, was no light matter in that age. Is it too fanciful to see in the portrait of the Rector that strong face implacably set against Joseph?
  7. Sarah -- All that we know from TPB is -- born 1729 of whom nothing further is known. We now know that she married John Turner in 1749, when aged twenty.
  8. João -- We think that the lack of knowledge about John other than his birth date, which TPB gives us, and which would have been passed on through Martha, actually has a simple explanation which we put forward with some confidence.
    Where sons were concerned in an 18th century family considered to be gentry, the English custom of primogeniture operated, whereby the eldest son inherited the family property and land. Where there were several sons, the next in age generally entered the Church or armed forces and younger sons were expected to make their own way or they were often apprenticed to a trade. In the Brailsford family we see Thomas inheriting Stordon Grange, and Joseph, as we have postulated, was originally destined for the Church. There is no record of either Thomas or John having been to Repton School, and they would have received their education from their father. It is unlikely that the Rector's finances would have run to putting all his sons through University in any case. Our conclusion is that John left home as a young man to make his way as a matter of course, though we do not know what career he adopted. However, recent research has turned up the intriguing possibility that he settled in Lancashire, married twice and had several children if he and the John hereunder are one and the same person.


Universal Manhood Suffrage

Thursday 26 April 2018, 14:00

Suffrage 100 – Suffragettes in trousers: male support for women’s suffrage in Britain

On 6 February 2018, celebrations were held across Britain to commemorate the centenary of the 1918 Representation of the People Act, which gave some women the right to vote for the first time. While this was pivotal for women’s suffrage, it was also an important milestone for men’s suffrage. Prior to the Act, property qualifications had been used to control the electorate, excluding most working-class men from voting. Despite attempts to satisfy concerns of democratic inequality, the Reform Acts of the 19th century continued to avoid universal manhood suffrage. The fourth and final Reform Act of 1918 was the first time male suffrage was achieved.

The British electoral system of the early 19th century was viewed as extremely unfair and in need of reform. In 1831, only 4,500 men could vote in parliamentary elections, out of a population of more than 2.6 million people. There were also concerns about parliamentary representation, as there were rotten boroughs, such as Dunwich in Suffolk, who could elect two MPs when they only had a population of 32 in 1831. In contrast, large cities, which had expanded over the previous century, including Manchester and Birmingham, had no MP. With increased pressure for electoral reform, parliament inevitably had to make changes.

The Great Reform Act of 1832 was a response to increasing criticism of the electoral system. Government began to fear that, if reform did not take place, then a revolution would ensue, as it had in France in July 1830. For example, a petition from the people of South Shields requested reform as they felt they deserved a right to vote and wanted more parliamentary representation. 1

The petition was created by ‘merchants, manufactures, shipowners and other inhabitants of the town’, but these groups would continue to be excluded from voting even following the 1832 Act. 2

Despite what its title may suggest, the Act did not signify great change to the electoral system. Most working men still could not vote, with the franchise being restricted by property qualifications. The continuing discrimination against working class men within politics merely angered many and led to the formation of groups for universal manhood suffrage.

The Chartist Movement developed after the 1832 Reform Act failed to extend the vote beyond those owning property. Its members were typically from the working class and their 1838 People’s Charter was established by the London Working Men’s Association. The petition had six demands:

  1. Universal suffrage
  2. The secret ballot
  3. Annual Parliamentary elections
  4. No property qualifications
  5. Equal voting districts
  6. Payment of Members of Parliament 3

Chartist movement poster for Carlisle, 1839. Catalogue reference: HO 40/41

Despite numerous attempts to present the petition to the House of Commons, the Charter continued to be rejected, which only encouraged unrest and violent behaviour. In 1841, during the canvassing of candidates for the forthcoming election in Carlisle, a letter to Sir Charles Napier recounts that ‘Candidates were insulted and pelted, [and] on the day of nomination a riot took place’. 4

In the short term, the Chartists were unsuccessful as their radical actions did not immediately drive electoral reform. Their militant methods could be viewed as undermining their campaign, which is arguably similar to the actions of the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU). Nevertheless, militancy in both cases successfully publicised the movements and both groups eventually had success. The Chartist movement declined after their third and final petition was rejected in 1848, but new groups continued to fight for manhood suffrage.

Notice for The Reform League, 1867. Catalogue reference: HO 45/7854

Various other groups were established, including the National Parliamentary and Financial Reform Association in 1848 and the National Reform Union in 1864, but these were short-lived and not as prominent as the Chartists. However, one group that made a big impact on political reform was the Reform League, which was founded in 1865. Ex-Chartists joined the League along with urban artisans. It also welcomed ‘other Reform Associations… and other organised bodies of Working Men’ to its demonstrations outside Parliament, such as in February 1867. 5 Yet, it is clear the Reform League were not as dedicated to universal male suffrage as the Chartists. The League dissolved within two years after the Second Reform Act of 1867, evidently satisfied by the increase in enfranchisement. Although, the League had achieved more than the Chartists, its members were clearly not as concerned with universal male suffrage.

The influence of suffrage groups, including the Chartists and the Reform League, encouraged the Second Reform Act of 1867. However, Parliament remained resistant to universal manhood suffrage and the Act, like its predecessor, included property qualifications as a means to control the electorate. The Act partly enfranchised the urban male working-class, granting the vote to those who owned houses in boroughs or lodgers who paid rent of £10 a year or more. while this doubled the electorate in England and Wales from one to two million men, universal manhood suffrage remained a distant idea. Even after the Third Reform Act in 1884, there was still a reluctance to provide all men the right to vote. It only partly overturned the previous Act by establishing a uniform franchise throughout the country. Moreover, it extended the same voting qualifications that existed in towns to those in the countryside. Yet, these attempts to extend the electorate were futile at ensuring universal manhood suffrage. However, with the rise of women’s suffrage, the fight for male suffrage was refuelled and presented a new angle for battling the resistance of Parliament.

It appears that as women’s suffrage groups became more prominent, there were fewer suffrage groups that specifically focused on male suffrage. It is likely that some men began to support women’s suffrage groups as they viewed it as a route towards universal manhood suffrage. The Men’s League for Women’s Suffrage was founded in 1907 by a group of largely middle class, left wing radicals. Henry Brailsford, the founder of the group, had been encouraged to actively participate in the suffrage campaign by his wife, Jane Esdon Brailsford – a militant suffragette. Men were increasingly interested in the suffrage movement and wanted to support votes for women, as it would inevitably ensure votes for all men.

While most suffrage societies allowed male members, the WSPU did not. Consequentially, the Men’s Political Union (MPU) was formed in 1910 as a militant male counterpart to the WSPU. Members of the group participated in similar radical actions to their female equivalent, such as Hugh Arthur Franklin who attempted to whip Winston Churchill, the home secretary at the time, at the ‘black Friday’ suffrage demonstration on 18 November 1910.

Men’s Political Union for Women’s Enfranchisement membership card which details the union’s aims and the methods they used to support votes for women. Catalogue reference: CRIM 1/149/3

Gender did not dictate the actions of the militant suffrage supporters and in prison Franklin went on hunger strike and was supposedly force fed 100 times. However, unlike the WSPU, the MPU remained active throughout the First World War and eventually federated with the East London Federation of Suffragettes to create the Worker’s Suffrage Federation. Although we cannot assert one definitive reason for why the Representation of the People Act was granted in 1918, the efforts of the suffrage groups played an important role in pushing for this next step in electoral progress.

A man shall be entitled to be registered as a parliamentary elector for a constituency… if he is of full age and not subject to any legal incapacity. 6

The 1918 Representation of the People Act symbolised the end of the long and weary path for universal male suffrage. Manhood suffrage may have been removed as the focus for electoral progress as women’s suffrage became more prominent, but it always remained an issue for the electoral system. Although the Chartist Movement had been unsuccessful, by the time of the Fourth Reform Act, nearly all their aims had been achieved, except for annual parliamentary elections. The period between the first and the fourth Acts witnessed minor victories for male suffrage, but it was the final reform and the introduction of women to the electorate that won all men the right to vote.

Cover of the Representation of the People Act 1918. Catalogue reference: C 65/6385

The Citizens project is led by Royal Holloway, University of London, and charts the history of liberty, protest and reform from Magna Carta to the Suffragettes and beyond.


Before the shooting

Portillo, 35, testified in the trial against Brailsford that Shaver cried for his life before Brailsford shot him.

Portillo and Luis Nuñez were in Mesa on a work-related trip that day from New Mexico and were in the same hotel as Shaver, where he was also staying on a work trip from Texas as a pest-control worker.

On the night of the shooting, Portillo and Nuñez joined Shaver in his room.

Police responded to the hotel after a couple in the facility's hot tub reported seeing someone pointing a rifle outside of Shaver's fifth-floor window.

At that moment, Shaver had been showing Portillo and Nuñez his pellet gun that he used for work to kill vermin. Portillo testified that as Nuñez and Shaver were looking through the rifle's scope, the pellet gun was pointed toward the window.

By the time police responded, Nuñez had left the hotel, and Portillo was still in Shaver's room.


Thomas Berry Horsfall

Born in Liverpool, the son of former Mayor of Liverpool, Charles Horsfall (1776-1846) and Dorothy Hall Berry (1784-1846).

‘Like his father, he stood in the front rank amongst the merchant princes of Liverpool.’

(1) Jane Anne Marsh (?-1841) m. Llanidloes, Montgomeryshire, 30 May 1834-1 February 1841 (2) Mary Cox (1817-1862), m. Brailsford, Derbyshire, 9 March 1847-1862 (3) Sophia Leeke (1830-1867) m. Belper, Derbyshire, 12 November 1863-1867 (4) Lucy Martha Nolan (1846-1920) m. London, 1 December 1870. Children (16 in all): With (1) Elizabeth Dorothy Horsfall (1835-), Charles Horsfall (1836-), Matilda Jane Horsfall (1837-), Thomas Marsh Horsfall (1838-1921), Louisa Horsfall (1840-), Robert Horsfall (1841-). With (2) Mary Cox (1848-), Charles (1849-), Annie (1851-), Jessie (1854-). With (3) William E. Horsfall (1866- ), Henry Leeke Horsfall (1867- ), Alexander S. Horsfall (1867- ). With (4) Lucy Beatrice Nolan Horsfall (1872-1943), Annie Gwendoline Nolan Horsfall (1873-), Gertrude B. Nolan Horsfall (1876-)

In the 1851 Census Thomas and Mary were living with her family in Brailsford: her mother (Elizabeth Cox), sister, brother, relation of Horsfall (Matilda Jane, aged 13 - visitor), their 2 children (Mary, aged 3, Charles, aged 1), 4 servants and a visiting servant with Matilda). William Cox (son of Eliz.) described as a landowner. In later years owned and resided at Bellamour Hall, Colton, Staffordshire. [Recorded there in 1861 Census along with Mary, his wife (b. Brailsford, Derbys., c. 1817), and 3 servants (a footman, nurse and kitchen maid) but no children. Horsfall described as 'MP, Magistrate and Merchant'.

Listed in the Liverpool Poll Book 1832 as Merchant, Netherfield Road, North Liverpool, S & D, BGS / FMN. Buried in St. Mary's Church, Colton, Staffordshire.

'During his lifetime Horsfall made considerable additions to the [Bellamour] estate and improved its general appearance. In the village he was esteemed for the interest he took in its inhabitants. The village schools were erected at his expense and were endowed by him. The cemetery adjoining, known as the Closed Burial Ground, was presented by him to the village as a free gift and he also took a very active part in the erection of the District Hospital in Rugeley. Horsfall also built the Reading Room in the village. Bellamour hall was demolished in the 1920's.'

In 1848 the first President of the Liverpool Architectural & Archaeological Society.

Elected the first President of the Chamber of Commerce and Mayor of the Borough he was also a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for the counties of Lancashire and Stafford.

Elected as MP for Derby, 1852 but unseated on petition MP for Liverpool 1853-1868.

As MP for Liverpool ‘His political opinions were based upon the soundest Constitutional principles, and he will long be remembered for his strong common-sense Conservatism in the House of Commons. He was a good and true Churchman, and in concert with his brothers built four of the finest churches in Liverpool, to whose charitable institutions he was also a munificent patron.’

He was a member of the Royal Commission on Railways established in 1865 (reporting in 1867) to examine the charges for transporting people and goods and to investigate a more economical and efficient system of interchange between the various railways.


Conteúdo

Brailsford appears in the Domesday Book as being in the tenancy of Elfin [1] (possibly an Anglo-Norman rendering of the Saxon Aelfwine) who also held the nearby manors of Bupton, Osmaston and Thurvaston from the tenant-in-chief, Henry de Ferrers. The Domesday survey records the following for Brailsford:

Elfin, through his son, Nicholas de Brailsford, is the ancestor of the Brailsford family, who are still numerous in the county and elsewhere today.

From Pigot and Co's Commercial Directory for Derbyshire, 1835:

The parish (which has no dependent township) contained 724 inhabitants in 1821 and 780 in 1831.


Catalogue description Records of the Shirley family, Earls Ferrers of Staunton Harold, Leicestershire.

Three separate deposits by Earl Ferrers are amalgamated under one accession number, 26D53. They form the main Ferrers accumulation, but should be consulted with a subsidiary collection, 25D60 which comprises Ferrers legal and estate papers, deposited by Messrs. Crane & Walton, solicitors, Ashby-de-la-Zouch.

A further item, 6D61, is the account book kept by the Trustees of the Ferrers estates during the minority of Sir Seymour Shirley, 1657-1668, which contains notes of expenditure relating to the finishing of Staunton Harold Church. This account book appears to be a duplicate of one in the deposit of Shirley family records from Ettington, Warks. (which includes records transferred from Staunton, c.1830.) now in Warwickshire County Record Office. Another deposit of Ferrers material, relating to their Staffordshire estates, is in the Staffordshire Record Office and William Salt Library (No. D.1702.).

Earl Ferrers retained three early 12th century deeds, and the letter of condolence from King Charles II to Lady Shirley, on the death of Sir Robert Shirley in 1657.

For further details of these and other related collections, see later in this introduction.

The Shirley family, which has held the manor of Nether Ettington in Warwickshire, in the male line since the Conquest, is one of the few that can authentically claim this distinction. They took their surname from another of their manors, Shirley in Derbyshire, which they held as early as the twelfth century, and at various times this branch of the family had extensive estates in the counties of Derby, Gloucester, Leicester, Northampton, Nottingham, Stafford, Warwick and Wiltshire. This accumulation includes documents relating to Shirley estates in all these counties, with the exception of records from Ettington and some from Staffordshire, held by the Warwickshire and Staffordshire Record Offices.

Marriage settlements and grants account for the presence of most of these documents the Shirley connection with Staunton Harold began in 1423, when Ralph Shirley married Margaret, the heiress of John de Staunton, whose family had held Staunton Harold since the 12th century. The Shirleys had earlier connections with Leicestershire however, because several of Ralph's ancestors had married heiresses, adding land at Dalby on the Wolds, and the manors of Ratcliffe on Soar, Barrow on Soar, Ragdale, Willowes, Ratcliffe on the Wreake, and Long Whatton to their Derbyshire and Warwickshire estates.

Similarly later marriages and the lands they brought with them account for the largest proportion of documents in this accumulation. The extensive series relating to the Astwell with Falcutt, and Wappenham area of Northamptonshire, is accounted for by the marriage, in 1556, of John Shirley of Staunton with Jane the daughter and heir of Thomas Lovett of Astwell. This marriage also added the Gloucestershire manor of Dorsington to the Shirley estates. In 1646, Sir Robert Shirley, great-grandson of John and Jane, succeeded to part of the estates of his uncle, the third Earl of Essex, including the Chartley estate in Staffs., which with Staunton Harold became the main estate of this branch of the Shirleys. Sir Robert Shirley's son, also Sir Robert, the first Earl Ferrers, married in 1671, Elizabeth Washington, daughter and heir of Sir Laurence Washington of Garsdon, Wiltshire. This marriage brought the manors of Garsdon and other lands in Wiltshire into the Shirley family.

For most of these marriages, the settlements survive, as well as large numbers of leases, manorial documents and legal papers relating to these estates. The accumulation also contains other legal papers relating to family financial disputes and Earl Ferrers' dispute with the North Staffs. Railway Company, but the main part of the legal papers from these disputes is in the Crane and Walton deposit (25D60).

The management of such large and widespread estates necessarily involved keeping a great many estate records and accounts. The more systematic book-keeping of the 18th and 19th centuries increased the quantity of this type of material and, as the areas of land involved were large, the estate records in the Ferrers MSS for this period are extensive. They include a series of surveys and valuations estate maps and plans a big series of accounts, including household and wages accounts and estate rentals. This series relates mainly to Staunton Harold and Chartley because, by the middle of the 18th century, only these two main estates were left to this branch of the Shirleys. On the death of Robert, first Earl Ferrers in 1717, the Ettington estate and the Wiltshire manor of Garsdon were inherited by two of the younger sons of his very large family. Washington, the fifth Earl, sold the Northamptonshire and Derbyshire estates in the middle of the 18th century, partly to pay for the extensive alterations to Staunton Harold Hall which he planned. In this accumulation is a volume of building accounts, dated 1762-8, for these alterations which amounted to a rebuilding of the Hall, and were not completed until after the death of the fifth earl in 1778 (No.2506.).

The situation of Staunton Harold, close to the Derbyshire border and within the area of the Leicestershire and South Derbyshire coalfield, inevitably led to the Ferrers family holding colliery and other industrial interests. As early as the 13th century iron workings at Staunton are mentioned in a tithe demand, and 17th, 18th and 19th century leases and accounts relate to the lime works and collieries at Staunton and Lount. From 1798-1810 the Hon. Washington Shirley, later eighth Earl Ferrers, who married a cousin of Viscount Dudley and Ward, was manager of Lord Dudley's collieries in the Dudley, Bilston and Tipton area of South Staffordshire, and a quantity of accounts, correspondence and other papers relating to the running of these collieries survive. The Ferrers family also owned salt workings at Shirleywich on the Chartley estate, and although this was obviously on a smaller scale than their colliery interests, the salt sales accounts among these records, prove it a steady source of income during the first half of the 18th century.

One of the most remarkable single items in this accumulation is the Great Pedigree of the Shirley family, not only because of its size and the excellence of its execution, but as a piece of genealogical research. It was compiled in 1632 by Sir Thomas Shirley who was a great friend of Sir William Dugdale, and takes this family of such exceptionally ancient descent, to pre-Conquest period. A slightly earlier Lesser Pedigree of the Devereux and Ferrers families, smaller, but still of impressive proportions, is also included.

MINOR FERRERS ESTATES, VARIOUS COUNTIES.

1 - 146 Estates of Shirley and connected families, in England and Ireland, 14th - 18th centuries, arranged topographically.

Arranged under county headings in alphabetical order of parishes the parishes listed are main subjects of each section, but other parishes are included.

147 - 185 Derbys., estates as a whole.

286 - 335 Various parishes, including: Ednaston, Hone, Hollington, Longford and others.

389 - 402 Various parishes, mainly Yeaveley.

403 - 427 Various parishes, including: Barrow-on-Soar, Burton Overy, Dunton Bassett, Loseby and Cold Newton, Quorndon, and others.

428 - 486 Ragdale Ratcliffe-on-the-Wreake Sileby.

538 - 557 Various parishes, mainly Worthington and Newbold.

558 - 836 Astwell with Falcutt.

837 - 938 Various parishes, including: Helmdon, Silverstone, Strixton, Syresham, Towcester, and others.

1062 - 1075 Weedon and other parishes.

1076 - 1106 Amerton-in-Stowe, and other parishes.

1145 - 1164 Colwich Drointon Field.

1210 - 1279 Gayton Grindley in Stowe.

1280 - 1303 Various parishes, mainly Hixon, Milwich, Newcastle-under-Lyme and Shirleywich.

1304 - 1415 Various parishes, mainly Stowe and Lea Fields in Stowe.

1416 - 1432 Various parishes, including: Amesbury, Bulford, Chelford and

1561 - 1580 Various parishes, mainly Lea and Cleverton and Monkton

1581 - 1650 MSS concerned with the main Ferrers' estates as a whole several counties included, mainly: Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire, Staffordshire and Warwickshire.

1651 - 1848 Court rolls, etc., arranged topographically.

1651 - 1674 Brailsford, Derbys.

1675 - 1687 Chartley, Staffs. Duffield, Derbys. Ratcliffe-on-the-Wreake, Leics. and various parishes, Lincs. and Notts.

1688 - 1764 Shirley, Derbys.

1791 - 1848 Staunton Harold, Leics., Strixton, Northants., Worthington and Newbold, Leics.

1849 - 1864 Various legal papers, mostly relating to disputes over Shirley lands, 13th - mid. 17th cent.

1865 - 1893 Papers connected with the Royalist activities of Sir Robert Shirley, 1648-1652.

1894 - 1916 Late 17th and 18th cent. legal papers, mostly family financial disputes, and separation of Earl and Countess Ferrers (1758).

1917 - 1943 19th cent. legal papers, including dispute with North Staffs. Railway Co., and Ferrers peerage claim.

1944 - 1979 Wills, probate inventories, etc., 1306-1859, relating to Shirley family. Also includes Inventory of goods of Sir Isaac Newton (April 1727).

SURVEYS TERRIERS VALUATIONS.

1980 - 2004 Mainly 18th and 19th cent. surveys and terriers of Ferrers estates in Derbys., Leics., and Staffs.

2005 - 2037 Accounts, work reports, letters etc., relating to lord Dudleys Staffs. collieries (Bilston, Brierley Hill, Parkhead, etc.) 1798 - 1820.

2038 - 2042 INQUISITIONS POST MORTEM (1517 - 1633)

2043 - 2045a HENRY SMITH'S CHARITY (1627-1641).

2045b - 2103 RECEIPTS, VOUCHERS & BILLS.

Various 14th - 19th cent., including bills for work at Tamworth Castle mills, 1703.

Misc. Ferrers family and business letters, mainly about financial affairs, 18th and 19th centuries.

2135 - 2192 MAPS & PLANS (All 18th or 19th cent).

2135 - 2152 Var. places on Chartley estate, building and estate plans also maps of farms at Ednaston, Derbys.

2153 - 2167 Maps of var. parts of Chartley estate, mainly Fradswell, Gayton, Grindley and Hixon. Also maps of Happisburgh area, Norfolk.

2168 & 2169 Detailed 18th cent. field plan of Ratcliffe-on-the-Wreake, Leics.

2170 - 2173 Shirley, Derbys., and var. places on Chartley estate.

2174 - 2176 Staffs. and Uttoxeter Railway, 1861-2.

2177 - 2187 Staunton Harold and Worthington, Leics., Weston, Staffs.

2188 - 2192 Rivers, canals and railways in Leics. and Staffs.

2193 - 2325 Rentals, mainly of Derbys., Leics., and Staffs. estates, 1305-1916. (Mostly 18th and 19th centuries.)

(Dates do not usually indicate an unbroken series.)

2326 - 2353 General accounts - 14th and 15th cent. rents 17th and 18th cent. household and estate accounts 18th cent. industrial accounts.

2354 - 2407 Main estate accounts, 1842 - 1932. (Chartley and Staunton Harold.)

2408 - 2531 Subsidiary accounts, 1743-1919, mainly Chartley and Staunton Harold estates, including: Stewards' and Agent's accounts Farm and bailiff's accounts wages building timber and garden produce rates and taxes. Also includes some household and personal accounts Lount colliery and Shirleywich salt sales accounts.

2532 - 2573 Various 13th - 16th cent. MSS mainly appointments to var. offices marriage dispensations wardship of estates agreement with tomb makers (1585).

2574 - 2582 Papers concerned with Henry Salte's tenure of Shirley vicarage, 1592 - 1615.

2583 - 2679 Var. MSS, mainly 17th cent. and later. Includes: personalia, military commissions, bills, letters, etc. recipe books list of MSS belonging to Sir Isaac Newton (May 1727.) library catalogue of Staunton Harold (1834).

2680 - 2685 17th cent. Ferrers Bible Great and Lesser Pedigrees and grant of supporters. 18th cent. grant of Earldom and settlement of estates after execution of 4th Earl.

2686 Bundle of letters release of property at Ednaston, Derbys., 1840-1844.

Catalogues of the following additional deposits of Shirley family records may also be found in A2A:-

25D60 Records received from family's solicitors, including legal papers re-court cases and sale of Chartley estate, and other estate records 1726-1923

22D64 Family letters 1803-1854

23D66 Records re-property in Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Staffordshire and Warwickshire 1311-c.1641

15D72 Cartulary of Sir George Shirley of Astwell, Northants. (c.1120-1617)

DE2638 Estate records, correspondence and personal papers c.1105-1961

Other Shirley family records deposited in the Record Office for Leicestershire, Leicester & Rutland:-

6D61 Staunton Harold estate and church accounts (under trustees) c.1656-1668

4D68 Rental of estate of Washington, Earl ferrers at Ettington, Whatcote and Oxhill, Warwicks.

5D69 Account book of John Johnson, Staunton Harold Steward 1724-1755

DE170 Fisher Mss containing deeds to property of the Staunton and Shirley families in Leicestershire, Staffordshire and Nottinghamshire 13th c.-1688

DE1452/1 Court rolls and minutes of court for Shirley family manors, including Ragdale, Willows and Ratcliffe-on-the-Wreake, Leics. 1351-1560

For further details of these and associated collections held by other repositories see:

Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts Guides to Sources for British History No.11. Principal family and Estate Collections: Family Names L-W (1999).

See also: Heather E. Broughton Family and Estate Records in the Leicestershire Record Office (1991)

Shirley family, Earls Ferrers of Staunton Harold, Leicestershire

Transcripts and extracts from many of the documents listed in this schedule, are to be found in:

Nichols, J. The History and Antiquities of the County of Leicester. Vol.3. pp 715-719. (pub. 1804.)


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