Clubes de futebol ingleses banidos da Europa

Clubes de futebol ingleses banidos da Europa


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Em 2 de junho de 1985, a União das Associações Européias de Futebol (UEFA) proibiu os clubes de futebol inglês de competir na Europa. A proibição ocorreu após a morte de 39 torcedores italianos e belgas no estádio Heysel de Bruxelas, em um tumulto causado por hooligans do futebol inglês na final da Copa da Europa daquele ano.

A final da Copa da Europa de 1985 colocou dois dos clubes mais famosos e bem-sucedidos da Europa um contra o outro: Juventus de Turim, Itália, e Liverpool, um time inglês que era o atual campeão europeu. Às 19 horas, pouco antes do início do jogo, um grupo de adeptos do Liverpool, embriagado de um dia passado nos bares de Bruxelas, atacou um grupo de adeptos da Juventus. Na confusão, uma parede do estádio desabou, esmagando alguns espectadores. Outros foram pisoteados na corrida para fugir do estádio. Ao todo, 32 torcedores da Juventus foram mortos, além de sete espectadores. Centenas de outras pessoas ficaram feridas. Para evitar mais tumultos da multidão indisciplinada, o jogo decorreu conforme o programado. A Juventus venceu por 1-0.

Na sequência, todos os clubes ingleses foram proibidos por cinco anos de competir na Liga dos Campeões e na Copa da UEFA. A proibição de Liverpool, a princípio indefinida, acabou sendo fixada em 10 anos e mais tarde reduzida para seis. De 1977 a 1984, os clubes ingleses conquistaram sete das oito Copas Européias, e sua expulsão do jogo foi um golpe para o país e para o esporte como um todo. Ainda assim, quando a proibição foi anunciada, a primeira-ministra britânica Margaret Thatcher deu todo o seu apoio: “Temos que limpar o jogo desse hooliganismo em casa e então talvez possamos ir para o exterior novamente”. As consequências não terminaram com a proibição. O Liverpool viu 14 de seus fãs serem considerados culpados de homicídio involuntário na Bélgica em 1989, após um julgamento de cinco meses. Os torcedores foram condenados a três anos de prisão, com metade das penas suspensas.

As seleções inglesas foram finalmente readmitidas na UEFA após a Copa do Mundo de 1990. Quinze anos depois, em 5 de abril de 2005, o Liverpool venceu a Juventus por 2 a 1 na primeira mão das quartas de final da Liga dos Campeões Europeus. Foi a primeira partida que os dois clubes jogaram desde o desastre do Heysel Stadium. Os fãs ficaram parados por um momento de silêncio no início do jogo, relembrando os 39 mortos na tragédia de 1985. Uma revanche foi jogada nove dias depois, em 14 de abril de 2005, em Torino, onde o Liverpool enfrentou a Juventus por um empate por 0 a 0, colocando o Liverpool na semifinal do campeonato europeu. Eles ganharam seu quinto campeonato europeu.


A história do Hooligan Grã-Bretanha

Uma empresa de futebol geralmente é o termo dado a um grupo de hooligans que viajam juntos frequentemente para se envolver em violência com a empresa de outro time. As empresas de futebol geralmente têm & # 8216firm & # 8217 em seu nome, por exemplo & # 8216West ham ICF & # 8217 a & # 8216Inter City Firm & # 8217

A história do Hooligan Grã-Bretanha

Em poucas palavras
A partir da década de 1960, o Reino Unido teve uma reputação mundial pelo fato de o hooliganismo no futebol ser frequentemente apelidado de Doença Inglesa. Desde a década de 1980 e bem na década de 1990, o governo do Reino Unido liderou uma repressão em larga escala contra a violência relacionada ao futebol. Embora o hooliganismo no futebol tenha sido uma preocupação crescente em alguns outros países europeus nos últimos anos, os torcedores britânicos agora tendem a ter uma reputação melhor no exterior. Embora relatos de hooliganismo no futebol britânico ainda apareçam, os casos agora tendem a ocorrer em locais pré-combinados, e não nas próprias partidas.

Englands Hooligan Craze

O hooliganismo no futebol na Inglaterra pode ser datado de 1880 & # 8217, quando os indivíduos são referidos como ásperos causou problemas em jogos de futebol. Os jogos do Derby entre times locais costumavam ter os piores problemas, mas em uma época em que os torcedores que viajavam para jogos fora de casa não eram comuns, os ásperos às vezes atacavam os árbitros e os jogadores do time visitante e # 8217s. No início dos anos 1980 & # 8217, para evitar serem rastreados pela polícia, as empresas começaram a usar roupas europeias caras, o que levou ao desenvolvimento da cultura casual.

Durante a década de 1970, empresas hooligan organizadas começaram a surgir com clubes como Arsenal (Gooners, The Herd), Aston Villa (Steamers, C-Crew, Villa Hardcore, Villa Youth), Birmingham City (Zulus, Zulu & # 8217s Warriors, Zulu & # 8217s Army, The Zulu), Derby County (Derby Lunatic Fringe), Chelsea (Headhunters), Everton (County Road Cutters), Liverpool (The Urchins), Leeds United (Leeds Service Crew), Middlesbrough (Middlesbrough Frontline), Newcastle United ( Gremlins, Newcastle Mainline Express NME), Nottingham Forest (Forest Executive Crew), Manchester United (Red Army), Portsmouth (6.57 Crew), Sheffield United (Blades Business Crew), Shrewsbury Town (EBF & # 8211 English Border Front), Tottenham Hotspur (Exército Yid), Wolverhampton Wanderers (Exército do Metrô) e o mais famoso West Ham United & # 8217s (Firma Inter City). Os clubes da liga inferior também tinham empresas, como Blackpool & # 8217s (Rammy Arms Crew), Coventry City (The Legion), Millwall (Bushwackers) (F-Troop) (Treatment), Stoke City (Naughty Forty) sunderland AFC (Seaburn Casuals) , Plymouth Argyle (TCE O Elemento Central), Burnley fc (esquadrão suicida) Walsall (Junção 9), Grimsby Town (GHS).

Dois eventos principais em 1973 levaram à introdução da segregação da multidão e da esgrima nos campos de futebol da Inglaterra. O Manchester United foi rebaixado para a Segunda Divisão, o Exército Vermelho causou confusão em todo o país e um torcedor do Bolton Wanderers esfaqueou um jovem torcedor do Blackpool até a morte atrás do Kop em Bloomfield Road durante uma partida da Segunda Divisão.

Um tumulto em grande escala estourou no The Den em março de 1978 durante as quartas-de-final da FA Cup entre Millwall e Ipswich. A luta começou nos terraços, depois se espalhou pelo campo e pelas ruas estreitas ao redor do campo. Garrafas, facas, barras de ferro, botas e lajes de concreto choveram do céu. Dezenas de pessoas inocentes ficaram feridas. Em março de 1985, hooligans que se uniram ao Millwall envolveram-se em tumultos em grande escala em Luton, quando o Millwall enfrentou o Luton Town nas quartas de final da Copa da Inglaterra. A resposta imediata da primeira-ministra Margaret Thatcher & # 8217 foi a criação de um & # 8220War Cabinet & # 8221 para combater o hooliganismo no futebol.

Entre maio de 1985 e 1990, os clubes ingleses foram banidos de todas as competições europeias, com o liverpool banido por mais um ano. Isso foi por causa do desastre do estádio Heysel, onde 39 torcedores da Juventus morreram esmagados quando os torcedores do liverpool romperam uma fila de policiais e correram em direção aos torcedores da Juventus em uma seção do campo contendo torcedores ingleses e italianos. Quando uma cerca que os separava dos torcedores da Juventus foi rompida, os torcedores ingleses atacaram os torcedores italianos, a maioria dos quais eram famílias e não ultras que estavam situados no outro lado do campo. Muitos italianos tentaram escapar da luta e uma parede desabou sobre eles.

Em janeiro de 1988, 41 pessoas foram presas quando o Arsenal Herd e o Millwall Bushwhackers entraram em confronto e protestaram em Highbury.

Após cerca de 20 anos de comportamento relativamente bom entre os fãs de futebol ingleses em geral, cenas extremas de tumultos e vandalismo voltaram em Upton Park em 25 de agosto de 2009, durante uma partida da segunda rodada da Football League Cup entre os rivais londrinos West Ham United ICF e Millwall Bushwhackers . O campo foi invadido várias vezes durante o jogo e depois ocorreram tumultos nas ruas, com um incidente que resultou em um homem ferido por faca.

Houve pequenos distúrbios durante e após a derrota da Inglaterra por 4 a 1 para a Alemanha na Copa do Mundo da FIFA 2010. Uma bandeira alemã foi queimada entre uma multidão de apoiadores ingleses em Leicester Square, na Inglaterra, bem como danos a um restaurante Haagen Daz nas proximidades. Um torcedor alemão entre a multidão foi confrontado pela multidão, mas não houve feridos.


menos de 24 horas antes da tentativa da Inglaterra de sediar a Copa do Mundo de 2018 fracassar, os torcedores rivais do centro-oeste de Aston Villa e Birmingham City entraram em confronto em dezembro de 2010. 14 pessoas ficaram feridas quando mísseis foram lançados no campo, um sinalizador de foguete foi lançado nas arquibancadas e também houve confrontos nas ruas próximas. Nesta fase, o hooliganismo no futebol estava aumentando dramaticamente, com 103 incidentes de hooliganismo envolvendo menores de 19 anos e # 8217 na temporada de 2009-10, em comparação com 38 na temporada anterior. Cass Pennant, um ex-hooligan do futebol, disse que o aumento do hooliganismo do futebol foi o resultado do aumento do desemprego, pobreza e descontentamento social após a recente recessão & # 8211 uma situação semelhante que afetou a Grã-Bretanha por grande parte da década de 1970 e 1980, quando o hooliganismo estava no auge.

Em uma partida entre o Sheffield Wednesday e o Leeds United em 19 de outubro de 2012, um torcedor do Leeds United atacou o goleiro do Sheffield Wednesday, Chris Kirkland, durante uma invasão do campo para comemorar um gol. O hooligan foi identificado em sites de mídia social como alguém que já havia sido banido de todos os campos de futebol do Reino Unido. O gerente do Sheffield Wednesday, Dave Jones, disse que os torcedores do Leeds eram & # 8220 animais malvados & # 8221 e pediu que eles fossem excluídos de partidas fora de casa no futuro.

Pouco depois desse incidente, um fã de 44 anos do Leeds foi atacado em uma noite com sua esposa em Sheffield por 3 fãs de quarta-feira e saiu em estado crítico e atualmente em coma. As tensões estão altas para quando a quarta-feira retornar à estrada de Elland em abril com o jogo já realizado em 12:30 KO. Alguns fãs de leeds disseram: & # 8220Com certeza será muito saboroso quando a escória de sheffield vier para a cidade & # 8221.


Clubes de futebol ingleses banidos da Europa - HISTÓRIA

A primeira-ministra, Margaret Thatcher, apoiou a proibição que foi anunciada por funcionários da FA em frente ao número 10 da Downing Street e pediu sentenças mais duras para os hooligans do futebol condenados.

"Temos que limpar o jogo desse hooliganismo em casa e então talvez possamos viajar para o exterior novamente", disse ela.

Na noite da última quarta-feira, 39 pessoas morreram e mais de 400 ficaram feridas quando um muro desabou no estádio em Bruxelas durante tumultos violentos pouco antes da final da Copa da Europa entre Liverpool e Juventus (Torino).

Temos que limpar o jogo desse hooliganismo em casa e então talvez possamos viajar para o exterior novamente

A proibição, decidida após o retorno do México do presidente da FA Bert Millichip e do secretário Ted Croker, afetará Everton, Manchester United, Liverpool, Norwich City, Tottenham Hotspur e Southampton. Todos eles devem competir em grandes competições na próxima temporada.

"Agora cabe ao futebol inglês colocar sua casa em ordem", disse Croker do lado de fora do número 10.

Millichip reconheceu que a proibição foi uma medida preventiva e que a Uefa (a União das Associações Europeias de Futebol) a teria imposto de qualquer maneira.

"Foi muito importante que a FA agisse de forma positiva e imediata", disse ele, dizendo que foi a decisão mais difícil que já teve de tomar.

O líder trabalhista da oposição, Neil Kinnock, disse que a proibição de times ingleses só beneficiaria aqueles que causaram o "motim assassino" na Bélgica.

A Liga de Futebol, que não foi consultada, também se opõe à decisão.

O governo belga já baniu todos os clubes britânicos de seu território até novo aviso.

O Liverpool, cujos torcedores foram culpados por grande parte da violência, decidiu desistir da competição da Copa da Uefa na próxima temporada antes do anúncio da FA.

A proibição foi suspensa em 1990.

A violência nos estádios de futebol foi amplamente eliminada graças ao circuito interno de TV, aos assentos nos estádios, à segregação de torcedores rivais e ao banimento do álcool.

Mais recentemente, toda a violência ocorreu fora do campo, como aconteceu durante os jogos da Copa do Mundo na França em 1998, quando os torcedores ingleses se alvoroçaram em Marselha destruindo lojas.

Os torcedores da Inglaterra se comportaram bem durante a Copa do Mundo de 2002 na Coréia do Sul e no Japão, bem como na Euro 2004 em Portugal.


A regra da Premier League que forçará os "seis grandes" a SAIR da primeira divisão inglesa após ingressar na Superliga Europeia

INGLATERRA & # x27S clubes de topo SERÃO forçados a abandonar a Premier League se seguirem em frente com a Superliga Europeia, pode ser revelado.

Uma regra nas diretrizes do Prem impedirá Man Utd, Liverpool, Man City, Arsenal, Chelsea e Tottenham de jogar futebol nacional.

REGRA L9

Exceto com a aprovação prévia por escrito do Conselho, durante a temporada um clube não deve entrar ou jogar sua primeira equipe masculina sênior em qualquer competição que não seja:

  • L.9.1 a Liga dos Campeões da UEFA
  • L.9.2 a UEFA Europa League
  • L.9.3. a FA Cup
  • L.9.4 o FA Community Shield
  • L.9.5. a Copa da Liga de Futebol
  • L.9.6 competições sancionadas pela County Association da qual é membro

De acordo com a regra L9, os clubes não podem jogar em nenhuma competição além das listadas durante a temporada de futebol.

A regra completa declara: & quot Exceto com a aprovação prévia por escrito do Conselho, durante a temporada um clube não deve entrar ou jogar sua primeira equipe masculina sênior em qualquer competição que não seja:

& quotL.9.1 a UEFA Champions League, L.9.2 a UEFA Europa League, L.9.3. a FA Cup, L.9.4, o FA Community Shield, L.9.5. a Copa da Liga de Futebol ou competições L.9.6 sancionadas pela County Association da qual é membro. & quot

Dada a forte oposição da Premier League & # x27s aos planos da European Super League, é justo dizer que obter & # x27sprior aprovação por escrito & # x27 pode ser complicado.

O primeiro-ministro Boris Johnson acertou em cheio a medida, que mergulhou o futebol na maior crise que já enfrentou neste século, fora a pandemia de Covid-19 - com a FA e a Uefa ameaçando com uma ação judicial.

Johnson afirmou que garantiria que a nova liga NÃO fosse adiante, já que as primeiras páginas dos maiores jornais da Europa e # x27s acertaram os planos.

Ele disse: & quotOs planos para uma Superliga Europeia seriam muito prejudiciais para o futebol e apoiamos as autoridades do futebol na sua ação.

“Eles atingiriam o coração do jogo nacional e preocupariam os torcedores de todo o país.

& quotOs clubes envolvidos devem responder aos seus fãs e à comunidade futebolística em geral antes de tomar qualquer outra medida. & quot

Os rebeldes de 12 clubes liderados pelo Real Madrid abriram caminho na véspera da confirmação planejada da Uefa de seus próprios planos para uma reformulação da Liga dos Campeões hoje.

Os gigantes espanhóis Real, Barcelona e Atlético de Madrid - além do trio italiano Juventus, Inter de Milão e AC Milan - compõem o grupo.

Eles formam 12 dos 15 clubes fundadores, que não podem ser rebaixados da elite fechada - com o Borussia Dortmund REJEITANDO a oportunidade de ingressar.

Cinco clubes terão o direito de se classificar a cada ano, com a temporada indo de agosto a maio.

Todos os jogos serão disputados em slots a meio da semana, com os clubes insistindo que poderão continuar a jogar nas suas ligas nacionais e “preservar o calendário tradicional de jogos nacionais que continua a ser o cerne do jogo dos clubes”.

Leia nosso Blog de futebol ao vivo para as últimas notícias de todo o terreno

Mas uma declaração contundente da Premier League, LaLiga e Serie A afirmou que qualquer clube que participasse seria "proibido de jogar em qualquer outra competição a nível nacional, europeu ou mundial."

Os 20 clubes serão divididos em dois grupos de 10, jogando 18 jogos - nove em casa e nove fora - com os três primeiros em cada grupo se classificando automaticamente para as últimas oito fases eliminatórias.

As equipes que terminarem em quarto e quinto lugar em cada grupo jogarão para preencher as duas vagas eliminatórias finais, com os empates disputados em duas mãos, além de uma final única "que será disputada como um único jogo em um local neutro" .

O presidente do Man Utd, Joel Glazer, disse: & quotAo reunir os maiores clubes e jogadores do mundo & # x27s para jogarem uns contra os outros ao longo da temporada, a Super League abrirá um novo capítulo para o futebol europeu, garantindo a competição e as instalações de classe mundial e um aumento financeiro apoio para a pirâmide futebolística mais ampla. & quot

O presidente do Real Madrid, Florentino Perez, acrescentou: & quotAjudaremos o futebol em todos os níveis e o levaremos a seu lugar de direito no mundo.

& quotO futebol é o único esporte global no mundo com mais de quatro bilhões de fãs e nossa responsabilidade como grandes clubes é responder aos seus desejos. & quot

Um furioso Gary Neville criticou o comportamento & # x27criminoso & # x27 dos clubes envolvidos, dizendo que ele estava & # x27 desgostoso & # x27 e pedindo que eles estivessem RELEGADO, privados de seus títulos e incorrer em multas pesadas.

Neville atacou os proprietários dos Big Six, rotulando-os de & # x27imposters & # x27 e & # x27bottle merchants & # x27 e disse que os fãs precisam ser protegidos da ganância do poder.

Enquanto a ex-estrela do United Rio Ferdinand se enfurecia: “Esta é uma guerra contra o futebol - uma vergonha.

& quotÉ uma loja fechada para figurões, os ricos ficando mais ricos e o resto nem mesmo sendo considerado. ”

Jamie Carragher mirou no ex-clube do Liverpool dizendo que estava & # x27encontrado & # x27, chamando os Reds de & # x27 constrangimento & # x27.

Uma declaração do Prem dizia: “Uma Superliga Europeia prejudicará o apelo de todo o jogo.

& quotIsso terá um impacto profundamente prejudicial sobre as perspectivas da Premier League e todos aqueles que dependem de nosso financiamento e solidariedade para prosperar.

& quotTrabalharemos com os fãs, a FA, EFL, PFA e LMA, bem como outras partes interessadas, em casa e no exterior, para defender a integridade do futebol inglês.


Os piores cinco meses do futebol inglês: Thatcher, lutas e fatalidades em 1985

Se 1984 foi um ano ruim para a Inglaterra, 1985 foi totalmente desastroso - principalmente se você fosse um fã de futebol. Richard Edwards lembra da intromissão de Maggie, um maio terrível e o início da contra-ataque dos torcedores.

O governo Thatcher havia passado o ano de 1984 lutando contra os mineiros e desmantelando a indústria do carvão. Mas com aquela luta quase ganha, quando o relógio avançou preguiçosamente para o Ano Novo, ela tinha outra das instituições mais amadas e estabelecidas do país em sua mira - o futebol inglês.

A história mostra que os primeiros cinco meses de 1985 foram dos mais miseráveis ​​já vividos no futebol nacional. Mas dos pontos baixos da revolta em Luton Town, o incêndio de Valley Parade e o desastre de Heysel, o futebol conseguiu iniciar o longo processo de se reinventar.

Dois britânicos surgiram na década de 1980. Os ricos ficaram mais ricos, mas os 10% mais pobres viram sua renda cair cerca de 17% "

No entanto, a própria noção de futebol com futuro entrou em questão. O estabelecimento via o futebol apenas como um problema e o belo jogo estava prestes a se dar conta de sua impopularidade entre os tomadores de decisão do país.

"Dois britânicos surgiram na década de 1980", escreve Andrew Marr em seu História da Grã-Bretanha moderna. & ldquoOs ricos ficaram mais ricos, mas os 10% mais pobres viram sua renda cair cerca de 17%. Muitas pessoas caíram pelas fendas. Outrora, a Grã-Bretanha se orgulhava de não ver gente dormindo nas ruas ou mendigando. Não mais. & Rdquo

O próprio futebol estava entrando no território do Begging Bowl. No final da temporada de 1983/84, o comparecimento médio na primeira divisão da Inglaterra havia caído para insignificantes 18.834 - uma queda preocupante de quase 8.000 desde a virada da década. O Aston Villa - vencedor da Taça dos Campeões Europeus apenas dois anos antes - agora recebia apenas 21.371 através dos portões do Villa Park. Os lobos, enquanto isso, só conseguiam reunir uma multidão média de 12.478 em um Molineux decrépito.

E à medida que as multidões diminuíam, os centímetros de coluna devotados a eventos fora do campo aumentaram exponencialmente, à medida que os níveis de desemprego atingiam 12% em janeiro de 1985, em um país mais dividido do que talvez em qualquer época de sua história.

Você estava chorando contra uma parede de estanho com uma trincheira cavada no chão "

Mais abaixo nas ligas, os fãs foram forçados a tolerar condições mais próximas dos anos 1880 do que dos anos 1980.

“Fomos todos manchados pelas autoridades”, diz Paul Davison, um fã de Bradford City que estava na Valley Parade para a festa de promoção dos Bantams contra Lincoln City em maio daquele ano.

& ldquoNão havia dinheiro no futebol e, como torcedor visitante, recebia tratamento ainda pior do que os torcedores locais. Você ficava em terraços em ruínas, todos os banheiros ficavam do lado de fora e você chorava contra uma parede de estanho com uma trincheira cavada no solo. & Rdquo

Ela pode ter ficado distraída por sua batalha com os mineiros, mas Thatcher ainda achava que o hooliganismo no futebol representava o pior dos males da nação. No momento em que o apito final soou sobre uma temporada tumultuada e finalmente trágica em maio de 1985, a Dama de Ferro - dois meses depois de assistir os mineiros derrotados voltando ao trabalho - estava de olho em mudanças significativas no jogo britânico.

"O governo considerou que algo precisava ser feito", diz Peter Garrett, cofundador da Federação de Torcedores de Futebol (FSF) - criada há 30 anos neste verão. & ldquoE era o ventilador comum que seria pisoteado. Algumas das ideias eram ridículas, elas nunca iriam funcionar: havia tantos esquemas, tantas ideias e eles simplesmente não eram práticos.

& ldquoSim, havia hooligans e sim, havia a provocação e a provocação, mas muito disso era ritualístico, em vez de ameaçador. Se você fosse um torcedor comum indo para um jogo, não teria sorte se encontrasse problemas. Muito disso era mitologia. & Rdquo

Os eventos muito reais em Kenilworth Road em uma noite enfadonha de quarta-feira em março, no entanto, simplesmente endureceram a decisão de Thatcher de violar as liberdades civis daqueles que escolheram segui-la.

Tornamo-nos párias. [O presidente] era o brinquedo da Sra. Thatcher. Ele queria um lugar seguro para Tory "

Inexplicavelmente, as quartas-de-final da FA Cup entre Luton e Millwall não foi um evento cheio de ingressos, o que deu aos apoiadores do Lions carta branca para amarrar um pouco de ajuda dos fãs de Chelsea e West Ham em um tumulto que manchou ainda mais o já reputação longe de imaculada dos fãs ingleses, tanto no mercado interno quanto, crucialmente, na Europa.

Para o presidente do Luton, David Evans, um confidente íntimo de Thatcher, o comportamento daqueles que viajavam de Londres provou ser uma bênção surpreendente disfarçada. O terreno de seu clube tinha sido destruído, mas ofereceu-lhe a oportunidade perfeita para se aproximar da primeira-ministra e ganhar seu favor ao discutir a ideia de banir os torcedores dos campos e apresentar carteiras de identidade.

& ldquoNós nos tornamos párias & rdquo David Pleat, gerente de Luton na época, disse O guardião no 30º aniversário do confronto. & ldquoEle era um menino travesso, David. Ele era o brinquedo da Sra. Thatcher. Ele queria um lugar seguro para Tory. Não concordo com isso, mas não houve discussão, não houve debate. & Rdquo

Era exatamente assim que Thatcher queria (e, ao contrário de apoiadores visitantes, Evans conseguiu seu assento, sendo eleito em 1987 como MP por Welwyn Hatfield). Na sexta-feira da mesma semana, Brentford cancelou sua partida de fim de semana contra Millwall por temores de segurança e o secretário do Interior, Leon Brittan, estava ameaçando introduzir prisão perpétua para os culpados de atividades graves relacionadas ao hooliganismo.

Os distúrbios no futebol são nada menos do que explosões de selvageria, eles ameaçam o futuro do futebol e mancham o bom nome do país no exterior "

"Os distúrbios do futebol são nada menos do que explosões de selvageria, eles ameaçam o futuro do futebol e mancham o bom nome do país no exterior", disse ele.

No Dia da Mentira, Thatcher - presumivelmente sem humor para boatos - se reuniu com funcionários da Football Association e da Football League e revelou um plano de seis pontos que incluía a introdução de carteiras de identidade, melhor esgrima e circuito interno de televisão. Não eram tanto um conjunto de propostas, mas uma lista de demandas para clubes de futebol que, ela considerava, não estavam fazendo o suficiente para resolver o problema.

Eles tiveram seis semanas para colocar suas casas em ordem, mas ninguém sentado em volta daquela mesa de Downing Street poderia ter imaginado a tempestade perfeita que estava para começar.

Em 11 de maio, o futebol mergulhou ainda mais na miséria por causa de um desastre enraizado mais na negligência de longo prazo do que no hooliganismo no terraço. No jogo final em Bradford's Valley Parade, antes de uma reconstrução planejada da arquibancada principal, um incêndio causou a morte de 56 fãs que nada fizeram além de assistir seu time comemorar a primeira promoção em meio século. Foi a pior tragédia sofrida pelo futebol britânico desde que 66 torcedores morreram em Ibrox em 1971. Isso deixou um país em estado de choque e uma cidade desolada enquanto contava seus mortos.

No mesmo dia em St Andrew's, um muro desabou quando os fãs de Birmingham entraram em confronto com os torcedores do Leeds, causando a morte de Ian Hambridge, de 15 anos. Ele estava participando de sua primeira partida de futebol profissional com seu pai, que, segundo consta, não ia a um jogo havia quatro anos por causa do medo da violência da multidão.

Ignorando a decisão absurda de realizar a final da Copa da Europa em um terreno em ruínas que estava irremediavelmente mal equipado para um jogo dessa magnitude, o primeiro-ministro não perdeu tempo em culpar os torcedores do Liverpool.

Thatcher falou quase imediatamente em retirar os clubes ingleses das competições europeias, seu fogo alimentado por rumores de que o problema de Heysel foi orquestrado por agências de esquerda em todo o continente.

& ldquoOs fatos ainda são imprecisos, mas há base para a crença de que o ataque claramente organizado por supostos torcedores do Liverpool no Estádio Heysel teve o apoio financeiro e ideológico de agências de esquerda fora da Grã-Bretanha & rdquo escreveu David Miller em Os tempos.

Com esse tipo de paranóia permeando os corredores do poder em Whitehall, não é de se admirar que uma nova batalha estava começando entre o governo e os fãs de futebol. Com lamentavelmente pouca resistência - os conservadores tinham quase o dobro de MPs do que um partido trabalhista lutando para lutar contra a nova Aliança Liberal / SDP - Thatcher sentiu uma oportunidade de colocar o esporte bem e verdadeiramente em seu lugar, eventualmente anunciando uma legislação exigindo que os fãs de futebol sejam feito para transportar cartões de identificação.

"Ela não foi informada por ninguém que soubesse o que estava acontecendo e o que aconteceu em Heysel", disse Garrett. & ldquoGraham Kelly [então secretário da Liga de Futebol] ficou indignado com a sugestão de que os clubes ingleses deveriam ser banidos das competições europeias, porque ele sabia o que iria acontecer.

& ldquoSe eles fossem banidos por um determinado período de tempo, tentar se restabelecer levaria uma eternidade. Foi catastrófico e, embora a Premier League tenha compensado de alguma forma, nunca tivemos o sucesso sustentado na Liga dos Campeões que tivemos na Copa da Europa. & Rdquo

Foi a partir dessa desilusão que a FSF foi formada. Com o objetivo de fornecer uma plataforma para que fãs oprimidos não apenas expressem sua opinião, mas também se oponham e realcem seu tratamento por uma administração aparentemente determinada a considerá-los a causa dos males do país, a ideia imediatamente pegou a imaginação do público.

Heysel deu origem à Premier League. Outra organização nascida de uma tragédia "

O órgão também entregou a Thatcher a oposição que infelizmente faltava em Westminster, embora já fosse tarde demais para fazer qualquer coisa a respeito da proibição autoimposta de clubes ingleses participarem de competições europeias - rapidamente ratificada pela UEFA e mantida até 1990, levando os maiores clubes do jogo a se reunirem e iniciarem discussões sobre uma liga separatista. Como Rogan Taylor, o primeiro presidente da FSF, escreveu mais tarde: "Foi Heysel que deu origem à Premier League. Outra organização nascida de uma tragédia."

Embora o primeiro-ministro tivesse ficado encantado em saber que o futuro do futebol envolvia não apenas uma redução significativa do hooliganismo, mas também uma organização extremamente lucrativa usando as forças do mercado para exportar negócios britânicos para um público mundial, nada disso era conhecido quando ela se posicionou a porta de 10 Downing Street apenas dois dias após o desastre.

& ldquoNós temos que limpar o jogo desse hooliganismo em casa ", disse ela," e então talvez possamos viajar para o exterior novamente. & rdquo

Em apenas 16 dias de maio, 96 torcedores perderam a vida assistindo ao esporte que amavam, deixando o futebol inglês em baixa.

O pior estava por vir, mas quando a temporada 1985/86 começou, a reviravolta dos fãs havia começado. Os mineiros podem ter sido derrotados, mas Thatcher estava prestes a encontrar no futebol uma noz ainda mais difícil de quebrar.


Todos os clubes da Premier League abandonaram a Super League após aviso de proibição da FA

Os Seis Grandes clubes da Premier League foram forçados a reviravoltas humilhantes após um dia de intriga e indignação para deixar a proposta de uma Super League europeia em frangalhos.

O Chelsea foi o primeiro a informar sua retirada e, depois que o Manchester City anunciou que estava seguindo o exemplo, os quatro finalistas - Liverpool, Manchester United, Arsenal e Tottenham - leram os ritos finais da competição de separação pouco antes das 23h, com declarações que variaram de concisas para o envergonhado.

Houve um amplo reconhecimento de que os rebeldes ouviram seus fãs ou, no caso de Liverpool, "principais interessados, tanto interna quanto externamente", embora apenas o Arsenal tenha realmente se desculpado por um comportamento que, coletivamente, foi amplamente condenado como descaradamente egoísta. O presidente do Spurs, Daniel Levy, “lamentou a ansiedade e o aborrecimento causado pela proposta do ESL”.

A Superliga foi anunciada como estando em andamento, como uma força imparável, às 23h de domingo, com os seis signatários ingleses sendo acompanhados por Real Madrid, Barcelona e Atlético Madrid da Espanha e Juventus, Internazionale e Milan da Itália. Na segunda-feira, houve temores entre os torcedores em toda a Europa de que nada poderia impedir o torneio fechado, o que teria minado gravemente o espírito competitivo do jogo.

Os fãs do Chelsea protestam do lado de fora de Stamford Bridge antes do jogo com o Brighton. Fotografia: Andrew Cowie / Colorsport / Rex / Shutterstock

No entanto, a reação foi feroz. Na Inglaterra, veio da família real e do governo para baixo, abrangendo os clubes "Outros 14" da Premier League, com fãs se mobilizando em grande número, principalmente nas redes sociais, para criticar o esquema.

A Federação de Futebol assumiu uma posição importante na terça-feira ao alertar que qualquer clube envolvido seria banido da Premier League e de todas as competições nacionais. Antes da declaração do Liverpool, que ninguém no proprietário, Fenway Sports Group, colocou seu nome, duas figuras-chave do clube haviam expressado sua oposição ao plano.

O capitão, Jordan Henderson, disse em nome da equipe: “Não gostamos e não queremos que aconteça. Esta é a nossa posição coletiva ”, enquanto Kenny Dalglish, uma lenda do clube e diretor não executivo, exortou os proprietários a“ fazerem a coisa certa ”.

Os protestos dos torcedores do Chelsea se transformam em comemorações com a saída do clube da Super League - vídeo

The FA’s chief executive, Mark Bullingham, emboldened by the UK government’s pledge to do whatever it took in legislative terms to block the breakaway tournament, said his organisation would take an uncompromising line with the rebel clubs.

Bullingham articulated the FA’s stance in a meeting with Premier League officials, including the chief executive, Richard Masters, and the division’s other 14 clubs, who were united in their opposition to the big six’s scheme. The FA is empowered to license clubs to compete – or otherwise. Bullingham and Masters had come off a separate call with Boris Johnson, who had reassured them that the government would move to support them if they encountered any issues with competition law. Put simply, Johnson said they would introduce new laws, if needed.

Bullingham also told the meeting the FA would refuse to grant governing body endorsements – essentially work permits – for overseas players at clubs that participated in the Super League. The meeting, which began at 11am, was marked by a sense that each of the 14 clubs wanted the same thing – which is not always the case – and, as the day wore on, there would be a growing optimism that the breakaway had lost its impetus.

The anger bubbled in plain sight. The 14 have no ill feeling towards the big six clubs themselves and they recognise how important they are to the Premier League product. But it is a different story in terms of their feeling towards the owners of them, together with the executives that do their bidding.

There were calls at the meeting for reprisals against Ed Woodward, Bruce Buck and Vinai Venkatesham, among others – the day-to-day bosses at Manchester United, Chelsea and Arsenal a call to explore whether they could be held to account for their actions, possibly via legal avenues. Woodward resigned as United’s executive vice-chairman on Tuesday night but is due to continue until the end of the year.

Chelsea and Manchester City in action in the Premier League in January. Photograph: Darren Walsh/Chelsea FC/Getty Images

The resentment is based upon the fact that executives at the 14 clubs have shared meeting rooms with their counterparts at the big six in recent times, in which shared ground has been sought. And yet all the while, the six have plainly been plotting to break away. The 14 are now determined to put in place a mechanism so that this kind of behaviour cannot happen again.

The Premier League had said in a strongly worded statement after its meeting that the 14 clubs “unanimously and vigorously rejected the plans” for a Super League. It went on that it was “considering all actions available to prevent it from progressing, as well as holding those shareholders involved to account under its rules”.

Everton had earlier been fierce in their condemnation of the six English clubs involved in the Super League, accusing them of preposterous arrogance, subversive practices and disenfranchising their own supporters. Everton’s owner, Farhad Moshiri, told TalkSport: “This is six clubs attacking the very heart of the Premier League, and I think they should be disciplined.”

A statement from Everton, the fourth most successful club in English league football with nine league championships, said: “The self-proclaimed Super Six appear intent on disenfranchising supporters across the game – including their own – by putting the very structure that underpins the game we love under threat. The backlash is understandable and deserved and has to be listened to. This preposterous arrogance is not wanted anywhere in football outside of the clubs that have drafted this plan.”

A number of other clubs, including Leicester and West Ham, both of whom hope to finish in the top four, went public with their opposition. Significantly, Pep Guardiola launched a scathing attack on the proposed tournament, even though City were due to play in it each season.

“It is not a sport where the relation between the effort and the success, the effort and the reward, does not exist,” City’s manager said. “It is not a sport where success is already guaranteed or it is not a sport when it doesn’t matter where you lose.

“That’s why I said many times, I want the best competition, the strongest competition possible, especially the Premier League. It is not fair when one team fight, fight, fight, arrive at the top and cannot qualify because success is already guaranteed just for a few teams.

“I don’t know what is going to change. [Even if] the people say: ‘No, no, maybe four or five teams can go up and play this competition,’ [then] what happens to the 14 or 15 not playing a good season and every time will be there? So this is not sport.”


England makes history with four clubs in both European finals

ADRIAN DENNIS AFP

Liverpool, Tottenham, Chelsea and Arsenal have made history by making England the first country ever to have four representatives in the Champions League and Europa League finals in a single season.

On Tuesday, Liverpool were the first club to book their place in the Champions League 2019 final, as they stunned Barcelona at Anfield to overturn a 3-0 deficit from the first leg, scoring four goals to go through 4-3 on aggregate.

On Wednesday, Mauro Pochettino’s Spurs pulled off a come-back of arguably greater magnitude against Ajax in Amsterdam. After having gone 3-0 down on aggregate following two first-half goals by the Dutch side, Spurs scored three away goals in the second half to secure their first-ever appearance in a Champions League/European Cup final.

Chelsea-Arsenal make Europa League final an all-London affair

On Thursday, a hat-trick from Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang and an Alexandre Lacazette strike saw Arsenal win 4-2 at Valencia (7-3 on aggregate) to become the first team to reach the 2019 Europa League final.

Enquanto isso, Chelsea had a much more difficult task in overcoming Eintrecht Frankfurt at Stamford Bridge, in a game that went all the way to penalties, with Eden Hazard converting the final spot-kick to win the shootout 4-3.

Liverpool and Spurs will now battle it out in the first all-English Champions League final since 2008, when Manchester United beat Chelsea on penalties to secure their third European Cup title.

Chelsea and Arsenal, meanhwhile, will make up the first all-English Europa League/UEFA Cup final since 1972, when Tottenham beat Wolves over two legs to become the inaugural winners of the newly formed competition.


Boris Johnson attacks Premier League ‘big six’ over European Super League plans as UEFA brand it a ‘cynical project’ and warn players face being BANNED

It was revealed on Sunday that six of England’s biggest football clubs had agreed on a plan to bring about a seismic shake-up of the game.

Manchester United, Liverpool, Arsenal, Chelsea, Tottenham and Man City have signed up to create a rival competition to the Champions League.

Spanish trio Atletico Madrid, Barcelona and Real Madrid, as well as AC Milan, Inter Milan and Juventus of Italy, are also part of the rebel group.

There will be 15 founding members of the European Super League (ESL) in total with no threat of relegation and it will be played alongside the respective domestic national leagues.

The news comes on the eve of UEFA’s announcement of a new Champions League format.

It has left the governing body of European football furious – with UEFA releasing a statement describing it as a ‘cynical project’ and warning players involved would be banned from playing in other competitions and for their national teams.

Their statement read: “UEFA, the English Football Association and the Premier League, the Royal Spanish Football Federation (RFEF) and LaLiga, and the Italian Football Federation (FIGC) and Lega Serie A have learned that a few English, Spanish and Italian clubs may be planning to announce their creation of a closed, so-called Super League.

“If this were to happen, we wish to reiterate that we – UEFA, the English FA, RFEF, FIGC, the Premier League, LaLiga, Lega Serie A, but also FIFA and all our member associations – will remain united in our efforts to stop this cynical project, a project that is founded on the self-interest of a few clubs at a time when society needs solidarity more than ever.

“We will consider all measures available to us, at all levels, both judicial and sporting in order to prevent this happening. Football is based on open competitions and sporting merit it cannot be any other way.

“As previously announced by FIFA and the six Federations, the clubs concerned will be banned from playing in any other competition at domestic, European or world level, and their players could be denied the opportunity to represent their national teams.

“We thank those clubs in other countries, especially the French and German clubs, who have refused to sign up to this. We call on all lovers of football, supporters and politicians, to join us in fighting against such a project if it were to be announced. This persistent self-interest of a few has been going on for too long. Enough is enough.”

The Premier League has also issued a robust statement condemning the plans.

The statement said: “The Premier League condemns any proposal that attacks the principles of open competition and sporting merit which are at the heart of the domestic and European football pyramid.

“Fans of any club in England and across Europe can currently dream that their team may climb to the top and play against the best. We believe that the concept of a European Super League would destroy this dream.

“The Premier League is proud to run a competitive and compelling football competition that has made it the most widely watched league in the world. Our success has enabled us to make an unrivalled financial contribution to the domestic football pyramid.

“A European Super League will undermine the appeal of the whole game, and have a deeply damaging impact on the immediate and future prospects of the Premier League and its member clubs, and all those in football who rely on our funding and solidarity to prosper.

“We will work with fans, The FA, EFL, PFA and LMA, as well as other stakeholders, at home and abroad, to defend the integrity and future prospects of English football in the best interests of the game.”

The Prime Minister also spoke out against the plans and warned they could be hugely damaging for the game.

“Plans for a European Super League would be very damaging for football and we support football authorities in taking action,” he wrote on Twitter.

“They would strike at the heart of the domestic game, and will concern fans across the country.

“The clubs involved must answer to their fans and the wider footballing community before taking any further steps.”

Plans for a European Super League would be very damaging for football and we support football authorities in taking action.

They would strike at the heart of the domestic game, and will concern fans across the country. (1/2)

&mdash Boris Johnson (@BorisJohnson) April 18, 2021

Culture Secretary Oliver Dowden also commented on the plans and said any decisions should involve supporters.

In a statement he said: “Football supporters are the heartbeat of our national sport and any major decisions made should have their backing.

“With many fans, we are concerned that this plan could create a closed shop at the very top of our national game. Sustainability, integrity and fair competition are absolutely paramount and anything that undermines this is deeply troubling and damaging for football.

“We have a football pyramid where funds from the globally successful Premier League flow down the leagues and into local communities. I would be bitterly disappointed to see any action that destroys that.”

European Super League plans

Teams signed up: Manchester United, Liverpool, Arsenal, Chelsea, Tottenham, Man City, Real Madrid, Barcelona, Atletico Madrid, Juventus, AC Milan and Inter Milan

Notable absentees: Paris Saint-Germain, Borussia Dortmund, Bayern Munich

How will the clubs benefit?

Principally by being guaranteed entry – and the revenue that goes with it – each year.

Even with the proposed changes to the Champions League, there remains a possibility teams could fail to qualify. This would eliminate that risk.

The Super League would comprise 20 clubs, comprised of 15 permanent founding members and five additional sides determined through a qualification process.

In a solo statement, the Football Association said: “It is clear that this would be damaging to English and European football at all levels and will attack the principles of open competition and sporting merit which are fundamental to competitive sport.

“For new competitions to be formed involving clubs from different associations, approval would be required from the relevant national associations, confederation and/or FIFA.

“We would not provide permission to any competition that would be damaging to English football, and will take any legal and/or regulatory action necessary to protect the broader interests of the game.

“We note FIFA confirmed earlier this year that they and the six confederations would not recognise any such competition and, as such, any player or club involved may not be permitted to participate in any official competition which falls within the auspices of FIFA or their respective confederation.

“The FA will continue to work with UEFA, FIFA and the Premier League to seek to ensure that nothing is approved that has the potential to damage English football. We will work with fans, the Premier League, EFL, PFA and LMA, as well as other stakeholders, at home and abroad, to defend the integrity and future prospects of English football in the best interests of the game.”


1921: the year when football banned women

In the early 20th century, women's football grew almost as quickly as the men's game, and reached new heights when the nation's men left for the First World War. However, in 1921 the FA took the decision to ban women's football, essentially outlawing the game in England. Jim Weeks explores the history of footballing women in Britain, and how the ban set back the burgeoning women's game

Esta competição está encerrada

Published: May 9, 2019 at 11:25 am

Women’s football in Britain has deeper roots than might be expected. In 18th-century Inverness in Scotland, single women played an annual match against their married counterparts, though the motives behind the contest were not purely sporting. Some accounts say that the games were watched by a crowd of single men, who hoped to pick out a potential bride based on her footballing ability. It represents the sport’s earliest – and by far the strangest – form of scouting.

This curious courtship ritual took place in the century before the modern sport was codified. When women took up football as we know it today, they did so against the backdrop of the suffrage movement and calls for greater gender equality.

Women’s first steps in the modern game

By the late 19th century, with the men’s game spreading across Britain like wildfire, women also began to take up association football. Early pioneers included Nettie J Honeyball, who founded the British Ladies’ Football Club (BLFC) in 1895. Honeyball was an alias: like many of the middle- and upper-class women who played in the late 19th century, she was not overly keen to publicise her involvement with a contact sport played on muddy fields. We know more about Lady Florence Dixie, who was appointed president of the BLFC in 1895. The daughter of the Marquess of Queensberry, Dixie was an ardent believer in equality between the sexes, and worked as a field correspondent for the Morning Post during the First Boer War.

The BLFC arranged games between teams representing the north and the south of England, where money would be raised for charitable concerns. The matches attracted healthy crowds, with thousands of people often on hand to see their encounters. Early newspaper reports were not particularly generous, however, with a Manchester Guardian reporter suggesting “when the novelty has worn off, I do not think women’s football will attract the crowds”.

While these games were more than mere novelty acts, crowds did drop off as the growing popularity of the men’s game came to dominate public interest. In a world where women were not yet allowed to vote, it would take extraordinary circumstances for their efforts on the football pitch to attract widespread attention those circumstances arose in 1914 with the outbreak of the First World War.

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Dick, Kerr’s Ladies and the munitions teams

The Football League was able to complete its 1914-15 campaign as planned, but suspended competition at the season’s end as the nation’s men signed up to the war effort.

Women across Britain did the same. Though they undertook a wide range of roles during the conflict, the most enduring image is that of the munitions girl. An estimated 700,000 women took up work as “munitionettes”, producing the bulk of the weaponry used by the British army during the war.

Just as men had done before them, women working in factories began to play informal games of football during their lunch breaks. After some initial trepidation, their superiors came to see these games as a means to boost morale and thus increase productivity. Teams soon formed and friendly matches were arranged.

At Dick, Kerr & Co, a Preston-based locomotive and tramcar manufacturer that had converted to munitions production at the outbreak of war, the female workers showed a particular aptitude for the game. Watching from a window above the yard where they played, office worker Alfred Frankland spotted their talent and set about forming a team.

Led on the pitch by founding player Grace Sibbert and under Frankland’s management, they soon drew significant crowds to see their games. Known as Dick, Kerr’s Ladies, they beat rival factory Arundel Coulthard 4–0 on Christmas Day 1917, with 10,000 watching at Preston North End’s Deepdale stadium.

The team’s popularity grew rapidly and they enjoyed sufficient longevity to dispel any suggestions of being a novelty. Over the following years, Dick, Kerr’s Ladies played numerous friendly matches to raise money for the National Association of Discharged and Disabled Soldiers and Sailors, winning the majority of their encounters.

Though the war had ended in 1918 the Dick, Kerr’s side and other women’s teams continued to draw large crowds. By 1920 there were around 150 women’s sides in England, with more still in Wales and Scotland. That year Dick, Kerr’s Ladies packed 53,000 into Everton’s Goodison Park incredibly, an estimated 14,000 were left outside the ground unable to get in.

They later played what is considered to be the first women’s international, against a French side led by the pioneering Alice Milliat, and toured the country with stops in Paris, Roubaix, Le Havre and Rouen.

The remarkable Lily Parr

The team had always fielded gifted players, but by 1920 they had unearthed their one true genius: Lily Parr.

Parr grew up playing football with her brothers in St Helens, north-west England, and began her career with the local ladies’ team at the age of 14. When they played against the Dick, Kerr’s side, she caught Frankland’s eye and was offered a job at the factory – as well as a spot on the team. No money changed hands, but this could be called the first meaningful transfer in the women’s game.

Parr was the exceptional player of her time and a remarkable character to boot. Openly gay, close to six-feet tall and with jet-black hair, she was a chain-smoker with a ferocious appetite and a fierce left foot. The National Football Museum credit her with 43 goals during her first season playing for Dick, Kerr’s Ladies and around 1,000 in total. At Parr’s request, her payment was supplemented by packets of Woodbine cigarettes.

By 1921 the popularity of Dick, Kerr’s Ladies was at its peak. Headlined by goal-scoring phenomenon Parr, they regularly attracted crowds in the tens of thousands and contested more than 60 games over the course of the year. Women’s football more broadly seemed in robust health. Having grown up alongside the suffrage movement, it seemed appropriate that the sport was booming at a time when around 8.4 million women had recently gained the vote.

But 1921 ended in catastrophe for the women’s game. The Football Association (FA) – ostensibly the governing body for the sport as a whole, but really only concerned with men’s competitions – had always taken a dim view of female participation. Women’s football was tolerated during the war, with the men’s game largely shut down and money being raised for servicemen. But in the years that followed the conflict, the FA sought to assert itself. With crowds for Dick, Kerr’s Ladies and others remaining healthy, there was a genuine fear that the women’s game could affect Football League attendances. The FA felt compelled to act.

A decisive ban

Their solution was decisive and brutal. On 5 December 1921, the FA moved to ban its members from allowing women’s football to be played at their grounds, effectively killing the women’s game overnight. While they could still play the sport, women were reduced to doing so at a recreational level. The FA also forbade its members from acting as referee or linesman at women’s games, creating another major hurdle. To all intents and purposes, the edict outlawed women’s football in England.

Explaining their decision, the FA released a statement in which it concluded that football was “quite unsuitable for females and ought not to be encouraged”. Several doctors agreed that the sport posed a serious physical risk to women. Not for the last time, a group of men were legislating on what a woman was allowed to do with her body.

The FA also suggested that “an excessive proportion of the [gate] receipts are absorbed in expenses and an inadequate percentage devoted to charitable objects”. No such obligation to donate profits to charity existed for men’s clubs and no proof of financial impropriety was presented, but there was little the women’s clubs could do in response.

There was outrage from players, with the captain of Plymouth Ladies remarking that the FA were “a hundred years behind the times” and calling their decision “purely sex prejudice”.

If any club could survive the ban it was Dick, Kerr’s Ladies, and in 1922 they set sail for a tour of North America. Under instruction from the English FA, Canada’s Football Association prevented the team from playing, but they were able to take to the pitch in the United States. Dick, Kerr’s Ladies played nine men’s teams in the US, where women’s football had yet to gain a foothold, and drew crowds of up to 10,000 spectators.

The Dick, Kerr’s side continued to play at non-FA grounds, becoming Preston Ladies FC in 1926 after Frankland fell out with the factory owners Parr remained with them until her retirement in 1951, aged 46. They drew good crowds given the circumstances, but could not hope to emulate what they had done before the FA’s ban. They were among the fortunate few: many clubs did not have the profile to continue and simply ceased to exist.

It was not until England’s men won the World Cup in 1966 that serious efforts to revive the women’s game began. The Women’s Football Association was founded in 1969, but progress remained painfully slow as the FA still refused to lift their ban. It took pressure from the governing body of European football, UEFA, to finally force the FA to end restrictions on women playing at its grounds in 1971. By this time, half a century of progress had been lost.

It is difficult to quantify the effect that the FA’s 1921 ban had on women’s football, but it is clear that it significantly restricted the sport’s development in England and, by association, throughout Britain. Women’s football might not have rivalled the men’s game, but it would have been considerably closer without an enforced 50-year exodus from FA grounds.

It is worth recalling that when the Dick, Kerr’s Ladies side visited the US in 1922 they played men’s teams. Women’s football simply hadn’t caught on across the Atlantic. When it did, and without the restrictions imposed in England, the United States emerged as the benchmark for women’s football during the second half of the 20th century. The US team has since won three World Cups and four Olympic gold medals England have no major honours in the women’s game.

In 2002 the great Lily Parr was the only woman named among the inaugural inductees to the National Football Museum Hall of Fame, joining the likes of Stanley Matthews and Bobby Moore. Finally, in 2008, the FA issued an apology for the 1921 ban. Without it, perhaps she would not have been the sole female representative among some two-dozen men.

Jim Weeks is a writer and editor with a particular interest in the historical and cultural dimensions of sport. Though currently based in south London, his heart resides in his native west Wales.

This article was first published on History Extra in December 2017


European 'Super League' Plans Set Off Battle for Future of Football

LONDON - The governing bodies of world football have threatened to ban any club or player taking part in the new European Super League from playing in their competitions, raising the prospect that some of the world's biggest stars could be banned from representing their countries in the FIFA World Cup.

Battle lines are being drawn for the future of football, after a dozen top European clubs signed up to the breakaway competition, which critics say will destroy the traditional structure of the game. On both sides, powerful forces are squaring up for a fight that could decide the future of the global game.

Six clubs from Britain — Liverpool, Manchester United, Manchester City, Arsenal, Tottenham Hotspur and Chelsea three from Spain — Barcelona, Real Madrid and Atletico Madrid and three from Italy — AC Milan, Inter Milan and Juventus — originally signed up for the breakaway European Super League, whose formation was announced Monday.

However, just hours after that announcement, Manchester City confirmed Tuesday they would no longer take part in the competition. It was reported that Chelsea also plans to drop out.

The European Super League organizers say the new competition would rival but not replace existing domestic leagues and European tournaments, such as the UEFA Champions League.

The founding members would never face relegation. A further five clubs would be admitted through seasonal qualification.

Sports finance analyst Borja Garcia of Britain's Loughborough University said the primary motivation for the new league is money.

"Football has never been a very good business for club owners until a few years ago. But now, of course, comes the pandemic. Manchester United, Manchester City, Real Madrid — almost every club in Europe and around the world — are in massive debt. But the big clubs are in more debt because they have more salaries to pay. They depend more on audiences," Garcia told VOA.

"So, if I had to pick one (reason), I think it is indeed the level of debt that the pandemic has created in European football. But probably it is fair to say that that is not the cause of everything, but rather, an accelerator," he said.

U.S. investment bank J.P. Morgan will provide the finance, with each founding club gaining a share of $4.2 billion. Florentino Perez, European Super League chairman and current president of Real Madrid, defended the plans on national television Tuesday, warning that the top clubs had lost a total of $6 billion in the past season because of the pandemic.

"At this time, we are doing this to save football, which is at a critical moment," Perez said. "Soccer has to evolve, like life, like companies, people, mentalities, do. Social media has changed behavior, and football has to change and adapt to the times we live in."

Perez claimed that interest in football was declining among young people, although he did not provide evidence.

"Why are they not interested in football? Well, because there are too many matches of poor quality, and they aren't interested. They have other platforms to entertain themselves with. That is the reality.

"Viewership declines. The rights were also declining. So, something had to be done, and the pandemic told us we had to do it with urgency. We are all broke. Soccer is global — it's the only global sport in the world — and these 12 teams and some others have fans all over the world. Therefore, television is what needs to change so that we can adapt to the times," Perez said.

Plans for the European Super League have united a broad coalition of opponents. One poll suggested that almost 80% of British football fans are against the idea.

"I think it is more despicable, it is more of a greedy power grab than we ever expected," said Ronan Evain, executive director of Football Supporters Europe. "And they claim that they do it in the interest of football. They claim that they do it in the interests of everyone. They even claim that this is a response to the challenges of the pandemic. What they only really do is endanger the economic model of football and put every single club in Europe in danger."

Sports historian Philip Barker told VOA the proposals for the European Super League go against centuries of competition.

"The dream of actually coming up through the four divisions, doing what Wimbledon did many, many years ago — they came up from non-league football. We've seen it with (the) Wycombe Wanderers this past season — they got up to the championship. That dream of ascending through the levels of the pyramid was still there. But with this European Super League, there appears to be no promotion and relegations. It's effectively a closed shop for the giants of the game," Barker said.

He added, "There is a school of thought that says that this is not actually for certain, but it's a bargaining chip, because the big clubs were not happy with how UEFA was looking to expand the Champions League."

Jürgen Klopp and Pep Guardiola, the managers of Liverpool and Manchester City respectively — both signatories of the European Super League — have voiced their opposition, as well.

Critics have called the European Super League a "closed shop" that will destroy smaller clubs.

"The European model of sport is supposed to be … a model where the whole football pyramid is linked together, so the top of the pyramid has a duty of care for the bottom of the pyramid," Garcia of Loughborough University said.

The European Union and the British government say it's vital to preserve that model. British Prime Minister Boris Johnson said Tuesday at a press conference he would "look at everything that we can do with the football authorities to make sure that this doesn't go ahead."

He said, "Football was invented and codified in this country. It is one of the great glories of this country's cultural heritage. These clubs, these names originate from famous towns and cities in our country. And I don't think (it's) right that they should be somehow dislocated from their hometowns, home cities, taken and turned into national brands and commodities, just circulate the planet propelled by the billions of banks, without any reference to fans and those who've loved them all their lives."

Bans and consequences

UEFA, which governs European football, and FIFA, which oversees world football, have threatened to ban all clubs and players taking part in the European Super League from participating in their competitions, including the World Cup.

Speaking at the FIFA Congress in Montreux, Switzerland, Tuesday, FIFA President Gianni Infantino warned the participating clubs that there would be consequences.

"If some elect to go their own way, then they must live with the consequences of their choice. They are responsible for their choice. Concretely, this means either you're in or you're out. You cannot be half in or half out. Think about it. Everyone has to think about it, and this has to be absolutely, absolutely clear. We can see that there is a lot to throw away for maybe a short-term financial gain of some, and people need to think very carefully," he said.

New fans, markets

The European Super League is designed to appeal to fans outside of Europe and to take advantage of new markets. Some fans in Asia expressed support.

"I'm mostly interested in watching these amazing matches and stiff competition. This could have a lot more appeal," said Kevin Wang, an Inter Milan fan from Beijing.

Dalad Suriyo, a Manchester United fan from Bangkok, shares that view.

"I agree with the breakaway, as the football players can build up their strengths in the league," Suriyo said.

Some fans in Europe also support the changes.

"I think the level of these clubs (involved in the European Super League) would improve, and it would create better matches for the audience. That would not fit very much with UEFA for economic reasons, and that's why they are against it," said Madrid student Andres Cruz.


The 1980s football’s darkest decade

Tragic events and the terrifying rise in hooliganism would change the sport forever.

The 1980s, destined to become the darkest decade for English football, opened with a portent of things to come when England travelled to the European Championships in Italy.

Trouble on the terraces during the first-round match with Belgium led to the deployment of tear gas by police and both teams forced to leave the pitch.

The rioting on the terraces during that tournament was a sight that was to become commonplace whenever the national team travelled abroad in the ensuing years.

You name a European city and it will have experienced so-called England fans terrorising stadiums or rampaging through the streets and squares.

Domestically, fans of rival clubs fought on a weekly basis as going to a football match became akin to visiting a war zone.

Segregation, police with riot shields and perimeter fencing became the norm.

In addition to the violence and intimidation, the stadiums hosting the games were becoming ever more antiquated and unsuitable.

All were ingredients that went into a mix which was to produce the tragic events that defined the decade and changed football forever.

The blackest single year for the game was 1985.

In March, there was large-scale rioting during an FA Cup quarter-final between Luton Town and Millwall at Kenilworth Road.

A disproportionately large away following, twice the size of Millwall’s average home gate, packed into the terrace and it was overflowing 45 minutes beforekick-off after turnstiles broke down.

Hundreds of Millwall fans scaled fences and police were helpless as they rushed down the pitch towards Luton’s supporters at the other end, hurling missiles.

The rioters then ripped out seats and brandished them as weapons.

Eventually, Millwall manager George Graham appeared to appeal for calm and police dogs cleared the pitch.

After only 14 minutes, the match was halted as the visiting fans began to riot again. The referee took both teams off for 25 minutes.

The game was completed with Luton winning 1-0, but missiles rained down onto the pitch throughout and at the final whistle, the players fled for the tunnel.

Hooligans tore down fences and again ripped out seats, hurling them at police.

Of the 81 people injured, 31 were policemen. One sergeant was struck on the head with a concrete block and stopped breathing, but a constable managed to resuscitate him.

Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher immediately set up a “War Cabinet” to combat football hooliganism. But there was worse to come. Much worse.

Just two months later, at the European Cup Final in Brussels between Liverpool and Juventus, 39 fans were crushed to death as a consequence of the behaviour of other supporters.

Liverpool fans had been allocated only one half of a terrace behind the goal at the dilapidated Heysel Stadium. Alongside them, separated by a flimsy wire fence, were Italian fans, who also populated the terrace at the opposite end.

Liverpool supporters, packed like sardines, tried to tear down the fence, chunks of concrete terracing were thrown, and fighting broke out. The fatalities occurred when a wall collapsed.

The disaster led to all English clubs being banned from European football for five years.

Two weeks before Heysel, another tragedy took place, but this time it was not as a result of hooliganism.

At Bradford City’s Valley Parade, 56 people were killed and 265 injured as the main stand caught fire during a match against Lincoln City.

The old wooden structure became an inferno within minutes of a small fire starting beneath the seats. In the panic that ensued, fleeing crowds had to break down locked exits in order to escape. There were many cases of heroism, with more than 50 people receiving police awards or commendations.

The disaster led to major new safety standards in UK football grounds, including the banning of new wooden grandstands, the immediate closure of other wooden stands deemed unsafe and the banning of smoking in other wooden stands.

On the same day as the Bradford fire, a 14-year-old boy died at St Andrew’s when a wall collapsed following crowd violence at a match between Birmingham City and Leeds United.

The fighting that day was described by a judge as more like “the Battle of Agincourt than a football match”.

A committee set up by the Government into the troubles surrounding the game stated that “football may not be able to continue in its present form much longer”. PM Thatcher called for hooligans to be given “stiff” prison sentences and her Minister for Sport, Colin Moynihan, attempted to bring in an ID card scheme.

Such was the extent of the shadow hooliganism cast over the game that when the Hillsborough disaster occurred in 1989, there was an assumption that the misbehaviour of fans was to blame for the death of 96 Liverpool supporters.

Only recently has the stigma carried by Liverpool fans for what happened during that FA Cup semi-final against Nottingham Forest finally been removed.

The tragedy happened when sections of the terracing at the Leppings Lane end of the ground overfilled and fans were not able to spill over to the safety of the pitch because of the anti-hooligan fences erected around the ground.

In the aftermath of Hillsborough, there was a general acceptance that terracing and perimeter fencing were not safe and that grounds should be all-seated and unfenced.

With events off the field dominating the whole decade, it’s easy to forget that there was still some football played during the 80s!

Liverpool dominated the domestic scene, winning six league titles, two FA Cups and four League Cups. They also won two European Cups before the ban.

Alex Ferguson arrived at Manchester United in 1986, threatening to “knock Liverpool off their perch”. He won nothing during that decade but he certainly made up for it afterwards.

Perhaps the club that suffered most because of the European ban was Liverpool’s neighbours Everton.

Under Howard Kendall, they won the League a couple of weeks before Heysel but were unable to take on the best of Europe the following season.

On the international scene, England had a dismal World Cup in Spain in 1982 but looked much better in Mexico four years later until Diego Maradona’s “Hand of God” goal knocked them out.

The little Argentine was the decade’s most outstanding player, though Ruud Gullit of Holland and Frenchman Michel Platini ran him close.

No question that in Britain, the best player of the 1980s was Kenny Dalglish.

He became player-manager at Liverpool in 1985 and won 14 major trophies during the decade.

He also played a huge part in steering the club through the dark days following Hillsborough.

Dalglish’s Liverpool were to win the first title of the 1990s, too, but it was also to prove the club’s last.

Football was about to undergo huge changes with the advent of the satellite dish and power was about to shift 30 miles along the East Lancashire Road…

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