Escaramuça em Lugo, 7 de janeiro de 1809

Escaramuça em Lugo, 7 de janeiro de 1809


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Escaramuça em Lugo, 7 de janeiro de 1809

A luta em Lugo em 7 de janeiro de 1809 foi o mais próximo que os britânicos e franceses chegaram de uma batalha em grande escala durante a retirada de Sir John Moore para a Corunha durante o inverno de 1808-1809.

Em 6 de janeiro, o exército de Moore estava concentrado em torno de Lugo, a 80 quilômetros da Corunha para o interior. Durante a retirada, o exército ficou muito disperso e a disciplina começou a entrar em colapso, então Moore decidiu descansar por alguns dias. Seu principal objetivo era reunir seu exército e dar-lhe tempo para descansar, mas também é possível que ele tivesse decidido tomar uma atitude. Um último fator na decisão de descansar em Lugo foi que Moore só recentemente decidira para qual porto se dirigia. As alternativas eram Vigo, na costa oeste, ou Corunha e Ferrol, no noroeste. Ele havia decidido a favor da Corunha em Herrerias (perto de Villafranca). Isso significava que a guarda avançada que se dirigia para Vigo precisava mudar de direção e seguir para Lugo, mas as ordens de Moore não os alcançaram prontamente, e uma divisão passou a maior parte do dia 5 de janeiro marchando e contramarcha pelas montanhas antes de finalmente chegar a Lugo.

Os britânicos tinham uma posição forte em Lugo. Os seus flancos eram protegidos pelo rio Minho à direita e por colinas inacessíveis à esquerda, enquanto a sua linha de frente era protegida por uma linha de muros baixos de pedra. O exército de Moore também acabou sendo bem maior do que ele acreditava - em parte porque 1.800 novas tropas estavam esperando em Lugo, e em parte porque um grande número de retardatários se juntou a suas unidades quando souberam que uma batalha era provável. Ao todo, os britânicos tinham cerca de 19.000 homens em Lugo.

O marechal Soult chegou a Lugo em 6 de janeiro, mas seu exército também havia se expandido durante a longa marcha pelas montanhas, então apenas metade estava com ele naquele dia. Mesmo depois que a outra metade chegou em 7 de janeiro, os franceses provavelmente foram superados em número pelos britânicos. Com força total, o exército de Soult teria 20.000 infantaria e 6.000 cavalaria, mas quando chegou a Lugo, ele teria 13.000 infantaria e 4.000 cavalaria, um total de 17.000 homens.

No início, Soult não sabia se estava enfrentando todo o exército de Moore ou apenas a retaguarda de Paget. Em 7 de janeiro, ele fez uma série de ataques de sondagem, começando com um bombardeio de artilharia contra o centro britânico. Este foi logo silenciado pelo fogo de quinze canhões britânicos, várias vezes mais do que Paget havia implantado nas ações de retaguarda em Cacabellos e Constantino. Ele então lançou uma finta contra a direita britânica, que foi despedida pela Brigada de Guardas.

A luta mais séria veio na esquerda, onde os regimentos do 2º Léger e da 36ª Linha da divisão de Merle lançaram um ataque que foi rechaçado pela brigada de Leith.

Isso acabou com a luta em Lugo. Em 8 de janeiro, Soult decidiu esperar a chegada de reforços. Do lado britânico, Moore havia preparado seus homens para uma batalha, mas com o passar do dia ficou cada vez mais claro que os franceses não iriam atacar. Moore rejeitou qualquer sugestão de que ele deveria lançar um ataque. Ele tinha todos os motivos para acreditar que o exército de Soult era pelo menos tão grande quanto o dele, e os franceses estavam em uma posição defensiva tão forte quanto os britânicos. Uma vitória custosa teria sido tão desastrosa quanto uma derrota, pois havia um segundo exército francês sob o comando do marechal Ney logo atrás.

Conseqüentemente, à meia-noite de 8-9 de janeiro, os britânicos saíram de suas linhas e retomaram a retirada para a Corunha. Moore esperava que o resto em Lugo fosse restaurar a disciplina de seus homens, mas ele estava redondamente enganado, e o exército mais uma vez começou a se dissolver em uma multidão desorganizada, que só voltaria a se reunir como um exército na Corunha. Felizmente para Moore, isso não se aplicava à retaguarda de Paget, que manteve sua disciplina até a costa. A batalha que tantos homens de Moore queriam finalmente chegou em Corunha, em 16 de janeiro de 1809.

Página inicial napoleônica | Livros sobre as Guerras Napoleônicas | Índice de assuntos: Guerras Napoleônicas


Norderhov

O município de Norderhov foi estabelecido em 1º de janeiro de 1838 (ver formannskapsdistrikt). De acordo com o censo de 1835, o município tinha uma população de 7.234 habitantes. Em 22 de abril de 1852, a cidade de Hønefoss foi separada de Norderhov para constituir uma unidade administrativa separada. Em 1857, o distrito rural Ådal foi separado de Norderhov, deixando Norderhov com uma população de 6.846. [2]

Em 1938, uma parte de Norderhov com 268 habitantes foi transferida para Hønefoss, e em 1 de janeiro de 1964 o resto foi fundido com Hønefoss, Ådal, Tyristrand e Hole para formar o novo município Ringerike. Norderhov era de longe o maior município antes da fusão, com uma população de 15.143 habitantes. [3]

O município (originalmente a freguesia) recebeu o nome da antiga quinta Norderhov (antigo nórdico: Njardarhof), já que ali foi construída a primeira igreja. O primeiro elemento é o caso genitivo do nome Njord, o último elemento é hof, Old Norse para 'templo'. Até 1865 o nome foi escrito Norderhoug. A paróquia de Norderhov (Norderhov prestegjeld) incluiu igrejas localizadas em Norderhov, Haug, Lunder, Tyristrand, Ådal, Veme e Hønefoss.

O museu Ringerikes foi fundado em 1923. É o museu regional dos municípios de Hole e Ringerike no condado de Buskerud. O Museu Ringerikes está localizado no local da antiga reitoria da Igreja de Norderhov, para a qual se mudou por volta de 1960. O Museu Stiftelsen Ringerikes possui e a Stiftelsen Hringariki opera o museu. [4] [5]

O museu é conhecido por sua coleção de ícones e pedras rúnicas, bem como por suas memorabilia relacionadas aos autores Peter Christen Asbjørnsen e Jørgen Moe. A coleção de ícones do museu foi doada pelo artista Hans Ødegaard. A coleção contém ícones do Báltico, Grécia e Rússia, os mais antigos datando de 1400. Hjemmestyrkemuseet, localizado no primeiro andar do museu Ringerike, mostra armas e equipamentos da ocupação alemã da Noruega. [6] [7]

Igreja Norderhov (Norderhov Kirke) é uma igreja medieval que foi reconstruída e ampliada para se tornar uma igreja cruciforme. Ele está localizado em Norderhov, ao sul de Hønefoss. A igreja foi originalmente construída como uma igreja de pedra de aprox. 1170. A construção pode estar relacionada ao estabelecimento da Diocese de Hamar em 1153. A Igreja de Norderhov tem uma história registrada que data de um anúncio de Ringerike feito em 1298 pelo Duque Hakon Magnusson, que mais tarde se tornou Rei Haakon V. A igreja é mais conhecida por isso, estreita conexão com Anna Colbjørnsdatter e com a Escaramuça em Norderhov. [ citação necessária ]

A igreja foi renovada em 1771, 1796 e 1809-1810. A sacristia foi ampliada para o leste e com novas janelas maiores e um novo teto mais baixo e um novo coro em 1881-1882. Enquanto isso, a torre da torre foi coberta com placas de cobre e a igreja foi reformada. Uma nova capela foi erguida no lado norte da igreja em 1910–1912. A igreja foi restaurada novamente em 1926 e 1953-1956. [8]

A igreja de Norderhov foi o local do conflito em Norderhov (Slaget på Norderhov) Tarde da noite de 28 de março de 1716, um exército do rei Carlos XII da Suécia foi confrontado por forças norueguesas. As tropas suecas se abrigaram na velha casa paroquial de Norderhov. Anna Colbjørnsdatter, esposa do pastor Jonas Danilssønn Ramus, enviou um alerta às forças norueguesas sobre a presença dos suecos. O próprio evento foi publicado por Peter Andreas Munch em seu livro Norges, Sveriges e Danmarks Historie to Skolebrug (1838). [9] [10]


The Napoleonic Wargamer

Isso olha para a história 'real' por trás da postagem de ontem "Explodir a ponte".

Assim, foram dadas ordens para retirar os canhões assim que a noite caísse o suficiente para mascarar o movimento, e as tropas começaram sua marcha por volta das nove horas.

No terreno que havíamos ocupado foram deixadas fogueiras de vigia acesas, que foram mantidas durante a noite pelos piquetes, que permaneceram para observar os movimentos do inimigo.


As diferentes colunas retiraram-se com a maior regularidade e em um silêncio tão perfeito que os franceses só descobriram a nossa evasão depois do amanhecer. A noite estava extremamente escura, o que favoreceu esta manobra.


Nossa rota para a cidade era em terreno acidentado e, embora vielas intrincadas, o país também era cruzado por muros de pedra seca, cercando campos e vinhedos, o que tornava difícil manter os esquadrões juntos, já que nenhum homem podia ver a cabeça de seu cavalo, muito menos seu líder de arquivo.

Nosso regimento estava destinado a formar a retaguarda como de costume, e parou sob as muralhas de Lugo, perto do Portão da Corunha, às onze horas, para dar tempo à infantaria, que ainda não havia subido, se juntar à linha de marcha .

Durante esse intervalo, a esquadra de esquerda foi mandada para a casa da cidade para assumir o controle de 35.000 dólares, que de outra forma deveriam ter sido deixados como um prêmio para o inimigo. Sacolas lacradas, cada uma contendo 500 dólares, foram distribuídas aos soldados e, dessa forma, £ 8 mil libras esterlinas foram salvas para a nação, mas nossos pobres cavalos foram muito oprimidos pela adição de quase duas pedras ao peso transportado.


Algumas das colunas se perderam, devido à escuridão da noite e aos erros dos guias, de modo que eram quase duas horas quando eles saíram da cidade.

A cerca de 13 km a noroeste de Lugo, a estrada principal para a Corunha atravessa o Rio Minho na aldeia de Rábade. A ponte é uma estrutura tipicamente espanhola de pedra sólida que data dos tempos medievais.

Seguimos logo depois e, ao cruzar o Minho, encontramos os Engenheiros empregados na mineração da ponte. Era natural supor que, depois de tantos fracassos, eles tivessem adquirido experiência suficiente para habilitá-los a cumprir seu objetivo, e neste caso o sucesso era particularmente desejável, pois o rio não era viável. O vapor é amplo e rápido, a margem está podre e a vizinhança não fornece material para fazer nem mesmo um reparo temporário. Esperava-se, portanto, que a destruição desta ponte colocasse obstáculos consideráveis ​​no caminho do avanço do inimigo, mas nossas esperanças foram novamente frustradas. A pólvora explodiu, a ponte permaneceu ilesa e os franceses cruzaram o rio em poucas horas. É uma circunstância extraordinária que nossos Engenheiros, que têm um caráter tão elevado, tenham falhado com tanta frequência em uma das operações mais simples da ciência.

No entanto, da perspectiva francesa, Le Noble afirma:
Os franceses entraram em Lugo no dia 9, onde levaram 18 peças de canhão e 100 caixões destinados ao exército da Romana. O marechal Soult atribuiu a divisão de Franceschi à vanguarda e o enviou em busca dos ingleses. No entanto, o General constatou que o inimigo tinha explodido um pilar da ponte de Rabade, onde a estrada principal atravessa o Minho, a duas léguas de Lugo. O coronel Garbe tendo sob seu comando os engenheiros e sapadores do regimento conseguiu restaurar a ponte suficientemente durante a noite (9/10) para a passagem da infantaria e cavalaria e na noite seguinte ela era forte o suficiente para permitir a passagem da artilharia.

Depois de atravessar o Minho, a cavalaria de Franceschi avançou rapidamente, tentando impedir outras tentativas de explodir outras pontes na estrada da Corunha:

Nossa vanguarda chegou a tempo de impedir a destruição da ponte sobre o Ladra, e executamos uma carga na qual quinhentos prisioneiros ingleses foram feitos.

A cavalaria continuou a perseguir o inimigo, no mesmo dia, eles forçaram a passagem da ponte sobre o Mendeo e empurraram Montefalquiero. Nesta ocasião, o general Franceschi carregou duas vezes contra a cavalaria inimiga e capturou mil homens, cinco canhões, dois deles franceses, da época de Luís XIV, muitas caixas de munições e bagagens, e entre as quais estava a carruagem do comandante geral a retaguarda.

Blakeney do 28º Regimento (North Gloucestershire) também notou as perdas nos dias 9 e 10 e o péssimo desempenho dos Royal Engineers:
Durante a marcha desastrosa de Lugo a Betanzos, mais homens se afastaram das fileiras do que durante toda a parte anterior da campanha. A destruição de várias pontes foi tentada, mas o fracasso foi o resultado invariável.

No entanto, nem todas as escaramuças parecem ter envolvido a retaguarda naquele dia, como Blakeney continua:
Dirigindo nossa atenção para os retardatários assim que o dia amanheceu, nós os descobrimos formados em razoavelmente boa ordem, resistindo à cavalaria francesa e retirando-se na estrada para onde estávamos em posição. O general Paget viu todo o caso e, percebendo que eles eram capazes de se defenderem, julgou desnecessário enviar-lhes qualquer apoio, mas declarou na presença dos homens, que por um impulso natural desejavam descer contra a cavalaria, que sua razão pois negar apoio era não sacrificar a vida de um bom soldado que se manteve fiel às suas cores para salvar toda a horda de saqueadores bêbados que, por sua conduta vergonhosa, se colocaram à mercê de seus inimigos.

Os retardatários a esta altura tornaram-se formidáveis ​​e a cavalaria inimiga, tendo perdido alguns homens e vendo a reserva fortemente posicionada, recusou-se a seguir mais longe este recém-formado arrecadar em massa, que, fiel ao seu sistema, subiu a colina até o nosso acampamento.

Batalha dos cestos
Blakeney se lembra de como a ação daquele dia entre os retardatários e os franceses ficou conhecida como a Batalha dos cestos entre os homens.

Um soldado do 28º Regimento, realmente um bom homem, que tinha a mula do Doutor Dacres, de quem era batman, caído na retaguarda porque o animal que carregava os cestos do cirurgião não conseguia acompanhar o regimento, parou em as casas mencionadas e, levantando-se antes do amanhecer para seguir o regimento, foi o primeiro a descobrir o inimigo, que avançava com bastante cautela, sem dúvida tomando os retardatários como nossa retaguarda adequada. O homem do médico gritou para os retardatários se levantarem e se defenderem do bastão da cavalaria francesa antes que eles pudessem se unir em algo parecido com um corpo compacto, alguns foram sabotados ou levados. Ele então galantemente assumiu o comando de todos aqueles que, despertados por uma sensação de perigo, planejaram uma formação, até que, para usar suas próprias palavras, ele foi substituído por um oficial sênior, um sargento, que então assumiu o comando supremo, sob o qual General Panniers, com sua mula, retirou-se colina acima para onde a reserva estava colocada. Eu entendo que o sargento recebeu uma comissão por sua boa conduta entre os retardatários, mas o pobre batman foi negligenciado, um exemplo não incomum de "Sic vos non vobis" no exército britânico.

Para sua informação, esta última ação também foi abordada em um post anterior, o Batalha dos retardatários um cenário para o Capitão.

Leitura futura:
Um Diário de Um Oficial de Cavalaria no Campiagn Corunna 1808-1809 - Capitão Gordon
Memoires sur Les Operations Militaires Des Francais en galice, en portugal er dan la valee du tage en 1809 - Le Noble
Um Menino na Guerra Peninsular - Os serviços, aventuras ou Robert Blakeney


Paul Newman e Joanne Woodward se casam

Um dos casamentos mais duradouros de Hollywood começa em 29 de janeiro de 1958, quando Paul Newman se casa com Joanne Woodward em Las Vegas, Nevada.

Os dois atores se conheceram no início dos anos 1950, enquanto trabalhavam na cidade de Nova York em uma produção da Broadway do drama romântico Piquenique. Newman teve um papel coadjuvante e substituiu a estrela do show & # x2019s, enquanto Woodward foi o substituto das protagonistas da peça & # x2019s. Ambos eram membros do prestigioso Actors Studio de Lee Strasberg e # x2019, ao lado de Marlon Brando, James Dean e Rod Steiger. Após o sucesso da peça & # x2019s, Newman e Woodward foram para Hollywood, onde ele assinou um contrato com a Warner Brothers e ela começou a trabalhar com a 20th Century Fox. Embora o primeiro filme de Newman e # x2019, O cálice de prata (1954), foi uma bomba, ele seguiu com uma virada aclamada como o boxeador Rocky Graziano em Alguém lá em cima gosta de mim (1956). Woodward teve um sucesso ainda mais precoce, estrelando como uma mulher com transtorno de personalidade múltipla em As Três Faces de Eva (1957). O papel lhe rendeu um Oscar de Melhor Atriz.

Em 1957, Newman foi escalado para contracenar com Woodward e Orson Welles em O longo e quente verão (1958), um filme ambientado em uma pequena e sufocante cidade do Mississippi e baseado em contos de William Faulkner. Quando as filmagens terminaram, Newman e Woodward estavam discretamente morando juntos. Depois que o divórcio de Newman e # x2019 de sua primeira esposa foi finalizado, o casal foi para Las Vegas, onde se casou em janeiro de 1958. Após a cerimônia, o casal passou a lua de mel no London & # x2019s Connaught Hotel.

Ao longo das duas décadas seguintes, Newman estrelou uma série de filmes de sucesso comercial aclamados pela crítica, principalmente The Hustler (1960), Hud (1962), Cool Hand Luke (1967) e dois pares de blockbuster com Robert Redford: Butch Cassidy e o Sundance Kid (1969) e A picada (1973). Ele e Woodward estrelaram juntos uma série de filmes, incluindo Do terraço (1960), Paris Blues (1961) e Um Novo Tipo de Amor (1963), nenhum dos quais correspondeu ao sucesso de O longo e quente verão. Em 1968, Newman fez sua estreia na direção com o filme Rachel, Rachel. Como personagem-título, Woodward recebeu uma indicação ao Oscar de Melhor Atriz, uma das quatro indicações totais que o filme recebeu.

Após o lançamento do filme & # x2019s, Newman comentou na imprensa que Woodward havia & # x201C desistido de sua carreira & # x201D por ele e que & # x2019s por que ele dirigiu o filme & # x201C para ela. & # X201D Naquela época, Woodward e Newman tinha três filhas e morava em Connecticut, longe do brilho dos holofotes de Hollywood. Além dos diversos mundos do cinema e das corridas de automóveis (nos quais Newman se envolveu depois de estrelar o filme de 1969 Ganhando), o casal também era ativo na política liberal, fazendo lobby por várias causas e falando publicamente em nome dos candidatos democratas. Newman foi posteriormente nomeado pelo presidente Jimmy Carter para servir na Conferência das Nações Unidas sobre Desarmamento Nuclear.

Durante todo o tempo, o casal defendeu diligentemente a solidez de seu casamento contra a especulação da imprensa, posando juntos para um VIDA revista espalhada em 1968 e colocando um anúncio de página inteira no Los Angeles Times no ano seguinte, proclamando que ainda estavam felizes juntos. O casamento passou por alguns momentos difíceis & # x2013; mais tarde, eles admitiram que seu trabalho juntos em O efeito dos raios gama nos malmequeres do homem na lua (1972), em que Newman dirigiu novamente sua esposa, causou tensão no casamento & # x2013 e sustentou-os durante a tragédia, quando o filho de Newman, Scott, morreu de overdose de drogas em 1978.

Em 1987, Newman mais uma vez dirigiu sua esposa no filme bem-avaliado The Glass Menagerie. No mesmo ano, ganhou seu primeiro Oscar, de Melhor Ator, depois de reprisar seu Hustler papel como Fast Eddie Felson na sequência dirigida por Martin Scorsese, A cor do dinheiro. Em 1990, Newman e Woodward estrelaram juntos pela décima vez, em Sr. e Sra. Bridge eles também apareceram no filme da HBO Empire Falls (2005), mas não teve cenas juntas. Naquela época, Newman havia transformado outro de seus & # x201Chobbies & # x201D & # x2013 uma pequena empresa de molhos para salada que ele fundou em 1982 & # x2013 em um império de varejo, Newman & # x2019s Own, que eventualmente geraria mais de US $ 220 milhões em doações de caridade e se expandiria para incluir pipoca, molhos para massas, salsas e sucos de frutas.

Newman e Woodward celebraram seu 50º aniversário de casamento em janeiro de 2008. Mais tarde naquele ano, Newman foi escalado para dirigir uma encenação de John Steinbeck & # x2019s De ratos e homens no Westport Country Playhouse em Westport, Connecticut, onde Woodward é o diretor artístico. Ele retirou-se da produção em junho, alegando motivos de saúde, e mais tarde foi relatado que ele havia sido diagnosticado com câncer de pulmão. Newman morreu em 26 de setembro de 2008, aos 83 anos.


Em agosto de 1808, os britânicos viram a oportunidade e enviaram uma força expedicionária sob o comando de Sir Arthur Wellesley, que derrotou um Delaborde na Roliça (17/8/1808) e um Junot em Vimiero (21/08/1808), que teve que se render. As condições de rendição eram magnânimas e isso causou desconforto em Londres. Wellesley e vários oficiais superiores foram chamados de volta a Londres para comparecer a um comitê de investigação. Sir John Moore foi escolhido para comandar os 30.000 homens da força expedicionária.

A vitória espanhola em Bailen em julho de 1808, forçou os franceses a recuar para a linha do rio Ebro. A gravidade da situação obrigou o próprio Napoleão a assumir o comando de um exército de 200.000 homens para restaurar a situação. Depois de derrotar todos os exércitos espanhóis que o encontraram, no início de dezembro ele entrou em Madrid.

Moore avançou de Salamanca para Burgos com a intenção de ameaçar a linha de abastecimento do Imperador, mas Napoleão se moveu mais rápido e Moore iniciou uma retirada épica, terminando em La Coruña com a morte de Moore. Nessa retirada, Moore explodiu todas as pontes que deixaram para trás, para retardar o avanço francês.

A BATALHA

A 3 de Janeiro de 1809 a vanguarda francesa chega aos ingleses em Cacabelos e com a ponte sobre o rio Cua intacta. Esta ponte era de vital importância para ambos os lados, para os franceses permitiria cruzar rapidamente o rio e para os ingleses, deviam defendê-la o máximo possível para permitir a retirada ao corpo principal do exército.

Às três da tarde, com a chegada das primeiras unidades da cavalaria francesa, o exército inglês, atravessa Cacabelos, a ponte e desdobra as tropas do outro lado do rio, deixando uma companhia para defender a aldeia.

A cavalaria francesa acabou com os retardatários ingleses, muitos deles bêbados, fugindo em desordem. Os franceses conseguiram cortar o caminho para a ponte, as últimas tropas britânicas cruzaram a ponte, alguns atravessaram o rio para nadar, o resto foi feito prisioneiro.

As tropas britânicas resistem, o general Colbert reúne suas tropas e se prepara para um novo cherge na ponte. Os franceses conseguiram tomar a ponte, mas a intensidade do fogo inglês (o general Colbert morreu enquanto liderava o ataque), forçou os franceses a recuar para se reagrupar e lançar outro ataque. Às cinco da tarde e as tropas francesas começam a vadear o rio Cua, os britânicos recuam à pressão francesa. Um novo assalto à ponte acrescenta mais pressão sobre a posição britânica, mas a artilharia britânica localizada no Castro Ventosa, castiga as colunas francesas que estavam dispersas, as tropas francesas que cruzaram o rio também recuam.


À noite, os britânicos acendem fogueiras, mas começam em um retiro silencioso. Não houve um vencedor claro, ambos os lados sofreram as mesmas baixas, cerca de duzentas. Os britânicos conseguiram segurar um dia, o exército francês, mas os franceses conseguiram tomar a ponte intacta.

CONSEQUÊNCIAS

O atraso na tomada da ponte permitiu aos ingleses evacuarem o depósito de suprimentos em Villafranca, mas a perseguição continua, em Lugo novamente ocorreu outra escaramuça. Os britânicos continuaram a recuar e depois de deter os franceses na Batalha da Corunha, o exército inglês pôde navegar de volta para casa.


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Silver Hill August e ndash Minorca

Para Hanover, 250 homens feitos prisioneiros quando HMS Helder naufragou & ndash ao largo da costa de Helder!

Dezembro e ndash para a América do Sul, Buenos Aires

América do Sul outubro e ndash para a Irlanda

Cork 23 de junho e ndash para a Península ROLICA VIMIERO

CORUNNA fevereiro - para a Inglaterra Walcheren TALAVERA (apenas destacamentos)

Totnes May & ndash para a Península SALAMANCA

Burgos VITTORIA Pyrenees NIVELLE

ORTHEZ TOULOUSE maio e ndash para o Canadá agosto e ndash chegou no Canadá

Inglaterra Bélgica Paris Exército de Ocupação

Estações e Combates & ndash 2º Batalhão

5 de agosto e ndash levantado em Barham Downs Holland Zyper-Sluis Bergen Egmont-Op-Zee Castricum Alkmaar

1º de agosto & ndash ressurgido em Horsham

Inglaterra, dezembro e ndash para a Península

2 de janeiro e ndash chegou à Península BUSACO

Redinha Fuentes d & rsquoOnoro El Bodon

CIUDAD RODRIGO BADAJOZ SALAMANCA 27 de julho - homens transferidos para o 1º Batalhão de outubro - casa de quadros para recrutar Totnes

24 de junho & ndash se desfez em Gosport

Carreiras de Oficiais Seniores (mostradas como a classificação mais alta alcançada no regimento no período)

Tenente Coronel Thomas Carleton

Tenente-coronel Brevet em 29th Foot 23 de setembro de 1782 Tenente-coronel em 5th Foot 30 de setembro de 1788 (na transferência de 29th Foot) transferido para 93rd Foot 22 de julho de 1794. (Não deve ser confundido com o Coronel Thomas Carleton, Tenente-Governador de New Brunswick de 1786 a 1817).

Major em 5th Foot 5 de fevereiro de 1787 Tenente-coronel 22 de julho de 1794 aposentou-se de janeiro de 1796.

Tenente Coronel Charles Stevenson

Serviu na guerra americana de 1775 a 1781 ADC a Sir Henry Clinton Major no 5th Foot 1792? comandou ambos os batalhões do 5th Foot em Texel 1794 Tenente-Coronel 1 de setembro de 1797 brevet Coronel e Coronel de York Rangers 25 de setembro de 1803 posteriormente Major-General 25 de julho de 1810 Tenente-General 4 de junho de 1814.

Nascido na Irlanda em 1771 Major em 85th Foot 30 de setembro de 1794 Tenente-Coronel em 5th Foot 16 de janeiro de 1796 (na transferência de 85th Foot) serviu no Canadá de 1791 a 1794 serviu na Holanda em 1799 renunciou e migrou para o Canadá em maio de 1803, um dos primeiros colonizadores do distrito de Lake Erie.

Tenente Coronel Hon. Edward Bligh

Nasceu na Irlanda em 1769 Major na Guarda do Terceiro Pé, 5 de março de 1794, Tenente-Coronel no Pé da 85. 30 de setembro de 1794 (na transferência da Guarda do Terceiro Pé) brevet Coronel 1 de janeiro de 1798 ADC para o Rei de janeiro de 1798 (enquanto na metade do pagamento do Pé 107) O tenente-coronel no 5th Foot 5 de agosto de 1799 comandou o 2/5th Foot 1799 a 1803 posteriormente o major-general 1 de janeiro de 1805, o tenente-general 4 de junho de 1811 morreu em 1840.

Major Exmo. John Lindsay

Nascido na Escócia 1762 Major em 55th Foot 1 de setembro de 1795 Brevet Tenente-Coronel 6 de agosto de 1799 transferido para 5th Foot maio 1800 transferido para 46th Foot 1802 posteriormente brevet Coronel 25 de outubro de 1809 Major-General 1 janeiro 1812 morreu 1826.

Nascido em Hertfordshire 1763, Major em 4th Foot 29 de novembro de 1796 brevet Tenente-Coronel 1 de janeiro de 1798 transferido para 5th Foot novembro de 1798, Tenente-Coronel em dezembro de 1798 transferido para York Rangers em outubro de 1803 na dissolução do 2º batalhão morreu em 1828.

Nascido Monmouth 1776 Major em 12th Light Dragoons em 22 de novembro de 1800 Tenente-Coronel em 5th Foot 25 de dezembro de 1800 (na transferência de 12th Light Dragoons) trocado por 4th Dragoons em 3 de setembro de 1801.

Nascido Suffolk 1767 Major em 10º Dragões Ligeiros 27 de outubro de 1798 brevet Tenente-Coronel 31 de julho de 1801 Tenente-Coronel em 4º Dragões 22 de agosto de 1801 (na transferência de 10º Dragões Ligeiros) Tenente-Coronel em 5º Pé 3 de setembro de 1801 (trocado por Somerset) se aposentou Setembro de 1802 morreu em 1851.

Major no 40th Foot 15 de julho de 1802 (na transferência de Caithness Fencibles) Tenente-coronel no 5th Foot 28 de setembro de 1802 (na transferência do 40th Foot) trocado para 33rd Foot 2 de novembro de 1802.

Nascido em Nottingham em 1764 Tenente-Coronel no 33rd Foot 1 de março de 1794 (sucedeu Arthur Wellesley no cargo) brevet Coronel 1 de janeiro de 1798 Tenente-Coronel no 5th Foot 2 de novembro de 1802 enquanto se recuperava de uma doença (trocado com Gore) nomeado coronel de um regimento do metade do pagamento de 5th Foot de julho de 1803.

Tenente Coronel William Cockell

Major no 105th Foot 18 de abril de 1794 Tenente-Coronel no 105th Foot 16 de setembro de 1795 Assistente do Quartel-Mestre General na Irlanda 1796 Tenente-Coronel no 46th Foot 1800 transferido para o 5th Foot 3 de outubro de 1802 (da metade do pagamento do 46th Foot) brevet Coronel 25 de setembro de 1803 Brigadeiro-general no Cabo da Boa Esperança 1806 posteriormente Major-General 25 de julho de 1810 Tenente-General 4 de junho de 1814.

Tenente-coronel Humphrey-Phineas Davie

Nascido Devon c.1776 Major em 111th Foot 1796 transferido para 5th Foot 6 de agosto de 1796 brevet Tenente-Coronel 1 de janeiro de 1801 Tenente-Coronel 1 de agosto de 1804 comandou 2/5 do Foot 1804 a 1808 retirado março 1808.

Major no 76th Foot 23 de abril de 1800 (na transferência do 32nd Foot) brevet Tenente-Coronel 29 de abril de 1802 Tenente-Coronel no 5th Foot 14 de setembro de 1804 (na transferência do 76th Foot) ADC para o General Craig de abril de 1805 trocado para o 1º Batalhão de Guarnição em 1 de junho Posteriormente, em 1805, o Adjutor Geral das forças na América do Norte foi enviado para negociar o armistício com o governo dos Estados Unidos. Julho de 1812, Major-General, 4 de junho de 1814.

Major in 4th Foot 20 de janeiro de 1801 Tenente-coronel no 4th Foot 17 de abril de 1801 transferido para o 15º Batalhão de Guarnição de julho de 1803 Tenente-Coronel em 5th Foot 1 de junho de 1805 (de meio-salário do 15º Batalhão de Guarnição) Inspecionando Oficial de Campo de Yeomanry em julho de 1807 .

Major no 5th Foot 1 de agosto de 1804 (em transferência da metade do salário do 85th Foot) Tenente-Coronel 6 de maio de 1806 comandou 1 / 5th Foot na Península de julho de 1808 a janeiro de 1809 ferido em uma escaramuça na noite anterior à morte de Corunha em 15 de janeiro de 1809 .

Tenente-coronel Charles Pratt, K.C.B.

Major em 5th Foot 25 de agosto de 1804 Tenente-Coronel 25 de março de 1808 serviu em Walcheren 1809 comandou 1/5th Foot na Península de junho de 1812 a abril de 1814 brevet Coronel 4 de junho de 1814 serviu na América do Norte 1814 com metade do salário 1820 morreu 1838.

Major Edward Copson, C.B.

Nascido Warwick 1775 Major em 15th Foot 29 de agosto de 1801 transferido para 5th Foot 21 de março de 1805 brevet Tenente-Coronel 23 de agosto de 1808 serviu na Península com 1/5th Foot de julho de 1808 a janeiro de 1809 comandou o 2º Batalhão de Destacamentos de fevereiro a agosto de 1809 novamente na Península com 2/5 a pé de junho de 1812 a abril de 1814 brevet Coronel 4 de junho de 1814 serviu na América do Norte 1814 morreu em 1822.

Tenente Coronel Hon. Henry King, K.C.B.

Major in 5th Foot 24 de agosto de 1804 (na transferência do 43rd Foot) serviu em Hanover 1805 serviu na América do Sul 1806 e ndash comandou o ataque ao Tenente-Coronel de Buenos Aires 16 de janeiro de 1809 comandou 2/5th Foot na Península de janeiro de 1810 a janeiro de 1811 e novamente em maio a setembro de 1811 e novamente de maio a setembro de 1812 brevet O coronel 4 de junho de 1814 morreu em 1839.

Principal Henry Ridge

Born Hampshire 1778 serviu na América do Sul 1806 Major in 5th Foot 25 de março de 1808 serviu na Península com 2/5th Foot de janeiro de 1810 a abril de 1812 comandou 2/5th Foot de janeiro a maio de 1811 e novamente de setembro de 1811 a abril de 1812 morto em combate em Badajoz 5 Abril de 1812 e ndash, considerado o primeiro oficial britânico na fortaleza.

Major com metade do salário do 9º Batalhão de Guarnição 27 de novembro de 1806 transferido para o 5th Foot 13 de junho de 1811 serviu na Península com 2/5 do Foot de setembro de 1811 a abril de 1812 ferido duas vezes em Ciudad Rodrigo brevet Tenente-Coronel 6 de fevereiro de 1812 com metade do salário 1820 morreu 1856.

Brevet Major 1 de janeiro de 1805 serviu na Península com 1/5th Foot de julho de 1808 a janeiro de 1809 comandou 1/5th Foot em Walcheren brevet Tenente-Coronel 1 de janeiro de 1812 Major em 5th Foot 10 de junho de 1813 novamente na Península Junho de 1812 a agosto de 1813 Major em 87th Foot 28 March 1816.

Served in Hanover 1805 Major in 5th Foot 8 May 1806 served in Peninsula with 1/5th Foot July 1808 to January 1809 wounded at Rolica served in Walcheren 1809 and again in Peninsula June 1812 to April 1814 brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 4 June 1813 died Dominica 1824.

Major John Drigue Morgan

Joined the army in 1780 Major in 5th Foot 1802 on half-pay due to reduction of the 2nd battalion 1803 Inspecting Field Officer of a recruiting district 1807 brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 25 September 1810 on half-pay list 1815 brevet Colonel 12 August 1819 died 1844.

Major Sir Horace David Cholwell St. Paul, Bart.

Born Northumberland 1775 Major in 5th Foot 1 November 1805 (on transfer from 1st Dragoon Guards) brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 25 September 1810 brevet Colonel 12 August 1819 by 1820 had been on the half-pay of 5th Foot for many years died 1840.

War Office. Army Lists 1796 to 1815. London: various years.

Wood, Walter. The Northumberland Fusiliers. London: Grant Richards, 1901.

Westlake, Ray. English & Welsh Infantry Regiments - An Illustrated Record of Service 1662-1994. Staplehurst: Spellmount, 2002.

McKenna, Michael G. The British Army &ndash And Its Regiments and Battalions. West Chester , Ohio: The Nafziger Collection. 2004.

Fletcher, Ian. Wellington&rsquos Regiments. Staplehurst: Spellmount, 1994.

Park, S.J. and Nafziger, G.F. The British Miltary &ndash Its System and Organization 1803-1815. Cambridge, Ontario: Rafm Co. Inc. 1983.

Philippart, John. The Royal Military Calendar, or Army Service and Commission Book. London: A.J. Valpy, 1820.

Hall, John A. A History of the Peninsular War: Volume VIII &ndash The Biographical Dictionary of British Officers Killed and Wounded 1808-1814. London: Greenhill Books, 1998.


Skirmish at Lugo, 7 January 1809 - History


Located in Southwestern West Virginia along the Ohio River, Cabell County was created by an act of the Virginia General Assembly on January 2, 1809 from part of Kanawha County. It was named in honor of William H. Cabell (1772-1853), who served as Governor of Virginia from 1805 to 1808. He was born on December 16, 1772 in Cumberland County Virginia, graduated from William and Mary College in 1793 and began practicing law in Richmond the following year. He was chosen as a representative to the Virginia General Assembly from Amherst County in 1796 and was re-selected six times until his election as Governor. After serving for three years as Governor, he served as a Judge of the General Court until 1811 and then a Judge of the Virginia Court of Appeals until his retirement in 1841. He served as the President of the Court from 1822 until his retirement in 1841. He died on January 12, 1853 in Richmond.

The first native settlers along the Ohio River in the area of present-day Cabell County were the Mound Builders, also known as the Adena people. Remnants of the Mound Builder's civilization have been found throughout the Ohio River Valley, with a high concentration of artifacts located at Moundsville, West Virginia, just north of the county (in Marshall County). The Grave Creek Indian Mound, located in the center of Moundsville, is one of West Virginia's most famous historic landmarks. More than 2,000 years old, it stands 69 feet high and 295 feet in diameter.

According to missionary reports, several thousand Hurons occupied present-day West Virginia during the late 1500s and early 1600s. They were driven out of the state during the 1600s by members of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy (consisting of the Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga, Oneida and Seneca tribes, and joined later by the Tuscaroras tribe). The Iroquois Confederacy was headquartered in New York and was not interested in occupying present-day West Virginia. Instead, they used it as a hunting ground during the spring and summer months.

During the early 1700s, the Ohio River valley, including present-day Cabell County, was primarily used as hunting grounds by the Ohio-based Shawnee, the Mingo, who lived in both the Tygart Valley and along the Ohio River north of Cabell County, and the Seneca, one of the largest and most powerful members of the Iroquois Confederacy.

The Shawnee settled in villages along the Ohio River, primarily in the area between present-day Wood and Cabell counties. Following the construction of Fort Pitt in 1758 by the British, the Shawnee moved further in-land and built a series of villages along the Scioto River in southern Ohio. These villages were collectively known as Chillicothe and served as their base camp for hunting and fishing in present-day West Virginia.

The Mingo were not actually an Indian tribe, but a multi-cultural group of Indians that established several communities within present-day West Virginia. They lacked a central government and, like all other Indians within the region at that time, were subject to the control of the Iroquois Confederacy. The Mingo originally lived closer to the Atlantic Coast, but European settlement pushed them into western Virginia and eastern Ohio.

The Seneca, headquartered in western New York, was the closest member of the Iroquois Confederacy to West Virginia, and took great interest in the state. In 1744, the Seneca boasted to Virginia officials that they had conquered the several nations living on the back of the great mountains of Virginia. Among the conquered nations were the last of the Canawese or Conoy people who became incorporated into some of the Iroquois communities in New York. The Conoy continue to be remembered today through the naming of two of West Virginia's largest rivers after them, the Little Kanawha and the Great Kanawha.

The Seneca, and other members of the Iroquois Confederacy, claimed all of present-day West Virginia as their own, using it primarily as a hunting ground. Also, war parties from the Seneca and other members of the Iroquois Confederacy often traveled through the state to protect its claim to southern West Virginia from the Cherokee. The Cherokee were headquartered in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee and rivaled the Iroquois nation in both size and influence. The Cherokee claimed present-day southern West Virginia as their own, setting the stage for conflict with the Iroquois Confederacy.

In 1744, Virginia officials purchased the Iroquois title of ownership to West Virginia in the Treaty of Lancaster. The treaty reduced the Iroquois Confederacy's presence in the Ohio River Valley.

During the mid-1700s, the English had made it clear to the various Indian tribes that they intended to settle the frontier. The French, on the other hand, were more interested in trade. This influenced the Delaware, Mingo, and Shawnee to side with the French during the French and Indian War (1755-1763). Although the Iroquois Confederacy officially remained neutral, many in the Iroquois Confederacy also allied with the French. Unfortunately for them, the French lost the war and ceded all of its North American possessions to the British. The Mingo retreated to their homes along the banks of the Ohio River, and the Shawnee retreated to their homes at Chillicothe.

Although the war was officially over, many Indians continued to see the British as a threat to their sovereignty and continued to fight them. In the summer of 1763, Pontiac, an Ottawa chief, led raids on key British forts. Shawnee chief Keigh-tugh-qua, or Cornstalk, led similar attacks on western Virginia settlements in present-day Greenbrier County. By the end of July, Indians had captured all British forts west of the Alleghenies except Detroit, Fort Pitt, and Fort Niagara. Then, on August 6, 1763, British forces under the command of Colonel Henry Bouquet retaliated and destroyed Delaware and Shawnee forces at Bushy Run in western Pennsylvania, ending the hostilities.

Fearing more tension between Native Americans and settlers, England's King George III issued the Proclamation of 1763, prohibiting settlement west of the Allegheny Mountains. However, many land speculators, including George Washington, violated the proclamation by claiming vast acreage in western Virginia. The next five years were relatively peaceful on the frontier. In 1768, the Iroquois Confederacy (often called the Six Nations) and the Cherokee signed the Treaty of Hard Labour and the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, relinquishing their claims on the territory between the Ohio River and the Alleghenies to the British. With the frontier now open, settlers, once again, began to enter into present-day West Virginia.

In 1772, a series of incidents between settlers and Indians in West Virginia ended what had been nearly eight years of peace. During the spring of that year, several Indians were murdered on the South Branch of the Potomac River by Nicholas Harpold and his companions. About the same time, Bald Eagle, an Indian chief of some notoriety, was murdered while on a hunting trip on the Monongahela River. In the meantime, Captain Bull, a Delaware Indian Chief and five other Indian families were living in Braxton County in an area known as Bulltown, near the falls of the Little Kanawha River, about fourteen miles from present day Sutton. Captain Bull was regarded by most of the settlers in the region as friendly. But some settlers suspected him of providing information to and harboring unfriendly Indians. While away from home in June 1772, the family of a German immigrant named Peter Stroud was murdered, presumably by Indians. The trail left by the murderers led in the general direction of Bulltown. Peter's brother, Adam Stroud, had a cabin nearby and seeing smoke rising into the sky, raced to his brother's cabin. He gathered up what was left of the bodies and buried them. He then headed for Hacker's Creek where he met with several other settlers who agreed to join him in an attack on Bulltown. They killed all of the Indians in the village, including Captain Bull, and threw their bodies into a nearby river. News of Captain Bull's murder quickly spread across the western frontier.

Following what the Indians referred to as the Bulltown massacre, Shawnee Chief Cornstalk, who had led numerous raids against West Virginia settlers in the past, began to organize the Indians in a concerted effort to drive the whites from their territory.

In 1773, land speculator Michael Cresap led a group of volunteers from Fort Fincastle (later renamed Fort Henry) at present-day Wheeling, murdering several Shawnee at Captain Creek. Among other atrocities, on April 30, 1774, colonists murdered the family of Mingo chieftain Tah-gah-jute, who had been baptized under the English name of Logan. Although Logan had previously lived peacefully with whites, he killed at least thirteen settlers that summer in revenge.

Virginia Governor John Murray, Earl of Dunmore, worried about the escalating violence in western Virginia, decided to end the conflict by force. He formed two armies, one marching from the North, consisting of 1,700 men led by himself and the other marching from the South, comprised of 800 troops led by western Virginia resident and land speculator Captain Andrew Lewis. Shawnee chieftain Keigh-tugh-qua, or Cornstalk, along with approximately 1,200 Shawnee, Delaware, Mingo, Wyandotte and Cayuga warriors, decided to attack the southern regiment before they had a chance to unite with Lord Dunmore's forces. On October 10, 1774, the Indians attacked Lewis' forces at the confluence of the Kanawha and Ohio Rivers, at present-day Point Pleasant, in Mason County. During the battle, both sides suffered significant losses.

Although nearly half of Lewis' commissioned officers were killed during the battle, including his brother, Colonel Charles Lewis, and seventy-five of his non-commissioned officers, the Indians were finally forced to retreat back to their settlements in Ohio's Scioto Valley, with Lewis' men in pursuit. In the meanwhile, Lord Dunmore arrived and joined forces with Lewis. Seeing that they were now outnumbered, Cornstalk sued for peace.

Although western Virginia's settlers continued to experience isolated Indian attacks for several years, Cornstalk's defeat at Point Pleasant was the beginning of the end of the Indian presence in western Virginia. The Indians agreed to give up all of their white prisoners, restore all captured horses and other property, and not to hunt south of the Ohio River. Also, they were to allow boats on the Ohio River and promised not to harass them. This opened up present-day West Virginia and Kentucky for settlement. Cornstalk was later killed at Fort Randolph near Point Pleasant in 1777 in retaliation for the death of a militiaman who was killed by an Indian.

During the American Revolution (1776-1783), the Mingo and Shawnee, headquartered at Chillicothe, Ohio, allied themselves with the British. In 1777, a party of 350 Wyandots, Shawnees, and Mingos, armed by the British, attacked Fort Henry, near present-day Wheeling. Nearly half of the Americans manning the fort were killed in the three-day assault. The Indians then left the Fort celebrating their victory. For the remainder of the war, smaller raiding parties of Mingo, Shawnee, and other Indian tribes terrorized settlers throughout West Virginia. As a result, European settlement in the state came to a virtual standstill until the war's conclusion. Following the war, the Mingo and Shawnee, once again allied with the losing side, returned to their homes. However, as the number of settlers in the region began to grow, and with their numbers depleted by the war, both the Mingo and the Shawnee moved further inland.

European Pioneers and Settlers

Robert Cavelier de La Salle was probably the first European to set foot in present-day Cabell County. He sailed down the Ohio River in 1669. The earliest English explorers to enter Cabell County were probably Thomas Batts and Robert Fallam. They explored the area in September 1671. When Batts and Fallam explored the county they found trees marked in coal with the letters MANI and M.A., signifying that other Englishmen had been there before them.

In 1749, Louis Bienville de Celeron explored the Ohio River and may have landed in Cabell County. He claimed all of the lands drained by the Ohio River for King Louis XV of France. He met several English fur traders on his journey and ordered them off French soil and wrote strong letters of reprimand to the colonial governors protesting the English's presence on land claimed for France.

Mary Ingles was probably the first English women to pass through what would later be Cabell County. She, and Betty Draper, were captured by Indians at Drapper Meadows, Virginia (now Blacksburg) on July 8, 1755 and taken by the Indians through the county as they made their way to the Shawnee Village at Chillicothe, Ohio. Mary Ingles escaped four months later and may have passed through the county on her return to Virginia.

In 1772, a grant of 28,628 acres, including much of the current county, was made to John Savage and 60 other persons for military service during the French and Indian Wars (1754-1763). William Buffington of Hampshire County purchased lot 42 of the Savage Grant from John Savage and willed it to his two sons, Thomas and William Buffington. Thomas Buffington and his brother, Jonathan, came to present-day Cabell County in 1796 and found Thomas Hannon, who had settled along the Little Guyan River. Hannon is regarded as the first, permanent English settler in Cabell County. Soon after building his cabin, Jonathan was out hunting and returned to find it burnt to the ground by Indians and all of his family, except for one daughter, murdered and scalped. The daughter was captured by the Indians. He chased the Indians, but was captured and forced to run the gauntlet. He survived the gauntlet and was allowed to return home, but he never found his daughter. However, in 1901, at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York, an Indian Chief named Jonathan Buffington was in attendance, suggesting that the captured girl may have named her Indian children in honor of her father.

Important Events During the 1800s

Throughout the 1800s, Cabell County's location along the Ohio River made it a natural resting place for settlers headed to the frontier lands in the west. Prior to the Civil War (1861-1865), many settlers followed primitive Indian trails to the west. Several of these trails passed through the county. On the advice of George Washington, Virginia commissioned the James River Company to upgrade these trails into roads. One of the company's largest and most important road project was the James River and Kanawha Turnpike. The turnpike traversed the frontier from Lexington, Kentucky to Charleston, Virginia. In 1814, the road was extended to Barboursville in present-day Cabell County.

In 1837, Marshall Academy, predecessor of Marshall University, was formed. One of the Academy's founders, local lawyer John Laidley, recommended that the school be named in honor of his friend, John Marshall, the late Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Marshall Academy was a "subscription school" serving the wealthier families in the Cabell County vicinity. It was incorporated in 1838 by the Virginia State Legislature. In 1867, the new state of West Virginia created the State Normal School of Marshall College to train teachers. Marshall College continued to increased in size and, in 1961, achieved the status of University.

Although most of the state's residents sided with the Union during the Civil War, the residents of present-day Cabell County were divided. Trouble began when, Eli Thayer, an abolitionist congressman from Massachusetts, spoke to some citizens in the county in 1857. Thayer supported the creation of colonies of northern workers in southern states. He hoped this would change the social makeup of the state, and turn the tide against slavery. The newspapers in Richmond chided the residents of Cabell County for allowing a Yankee abolitionist to meddle in the affairs of the state of Virginia.

After the Thayer controversy, many Cabell County citizens organized to pledge their allegiance to the state of Virginia. As the country moved closer to war, tensions in the county began to rise. After the election of President Lincoln in 1860, some of the county's citizens organized a militia loyal to the South known as the Border Rangers. William McComas, Cabell County's representative to the Virginia secession convention of 1861, voted for Virginia to remain in the Union. Although McComas voted as a unionist, the area's congressman, Albert Gallatin Jenkins, who owned a farm in the county, was a staunch secessionist. He was the leader of the Border Rangers. Jenkins later became a General in the Confederate Army, and was wounded in battle at Gettysburg.

While Virginia, as a whole, voted to secede from the Union, Cabell County's citizens voted to remain in the Union. However, the town of Guyandotte, located within the county, voted to secede.

The first engagement during the Civil War in Cabell County was the Battle at Barboursville on Fortification Hill in 1861. The 2nd Kentucky regiment entered the town and, after some minor fighting, dispersed the local militia. Later that year, a Confederate force attacked a Union recruitment station at Guyandotte. The Confederacy won the day with the assistance of several local residents who distracted the Union recruiters while the Confederates launched their surprise attack. The Union Army later recaptured the town and set it on fire to punish its citizens for aiding the Confederacy. Two-thirds of the town was burnt to the ground. After the town's destruction, the Unionist Newspaper the Wheeling Intelligencer declared Guyandotte "the worst secession nest in that whole country. It ought to have been burned two or three years ago."

The county's economy become stagnant during the Civil War, and the burning of Guyandotte, one of the county's major population centers, was a major blow to the local economy. However, the county's proximity to the Ohio River and the building of the railroad by Collis Huntington, played a major role in the region's economic recovery and its future success.

Legend has it that when Collis Huntington visited the county to decide where to place his railroad that he was initially interested in using Guyandotte as the railroad's end-point. However, when he arrived there, he tied his horse to the hitching post in front of the local hotel and it somehow reversed its position and ended up on the sidewalk. The town's mayor, seeing the horse, entered the hotel and demanded to know who the owner of the horse was. After identifying himself as the horse's owner, Mr. Huntington was fined by the mayor. Not liking his reception, Mr. Huntington announced the next day that he would not locate the railroad in Guyandotte but would, instead, build a new town (later called Huntington) just west of Guyandotte and make it the western terminus for his railroad. Ironically, Guyandotte was later merged into Huntington.

Important Events During the 1900s

In the early 1900s, industrial development occurred throughout Cabell County and in the fledgling city of Huntington. The glass industry, a flour mill, furniture manufacturers, and, in 1921, the International Nickel Company opened a plant near Guyandotte. The new industry brought economic success and population growth to the county.

In 1923, Huntington became home to the state's first radio station and, in 1949, the state's first television station. The construction of Interstate 64 through the county during the 1960s strengthened the local economy by providing ready access to Charleston and the rest of the state.

The first meeting of the Cabell County court took place in 1809 the home of William Merritt who was living in or near the present town of Barboursville. The county seat was then located at Guyandotte and remained there until 1814, when it was moved to Barboursville. In 1863, the county seat was returned to Guyandotte for two years because Barboursville was controlled by the Confederate Army. Following the Civil War, Barboursville was, once again, named the county seat (in 1865). It continued to be the county seat until 1887 when the county voters moved it to Huntington.

Huntington was settled in the early 1800s. James Holderby was one of the first settlers in present-day Huntington. He purchased a farm on lands within the city in 1821. At about that same time, Richard and Benjamin Brown established a river landing for boats nearby, then known as Brownsville. Huntington, currently the second most populated city in the state, was incorporated by an act of the West Virginia State legislature on February 27, 1871 and named in honor of Collis P. Huntington, President of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad.

One of the first orders of business following Huntington's selection as the new county seat of government was where to build the new county courthouse. A site between Fourth and Fifth Avenues and Seventh and Eighth Streets was selected and purchased for $24,757. On May 8, 1895, the County Court, then composed of B. H. Thackston, President, and C.H. Morris and C.C. Dickey entered an order that the court would receive plans and specifications for a courthouse that would:

"to be of stone and brick or of stone or brick, two stories, high slate or clay roof, lighted with gas and electricity, heated by steam or air, it must have three fronts and four entrances and must contain rooms for Circuit Court, for County Court and for clerk's offices of each court, with fire-proof clerk's offices or vaults attached and must range in cost from $60,000 to $100,000."

The building was subsequently built of Berea sandstone with a copper roof.

On July 21, 1896, the contract for the construction was let to Charles A. Moses. The first corner stone was laid on November 11, 1899. There was a large parade and a grand ceremony to mark the event. The Courthouse was completed on December 4, 1901. In 1923, construction was undertaken on the west wing. The contract was awarded to King Lumber Company at a cost of $133,900, paid for a three year levy. Then, on August 22, 1938, Frampton & Bowers, architects, were hired to prepare the plans for the new jail and for an east wing to the Courthouse. On December 28, 1938, the contract was awarded to Engstrom and Wynn of Wheeling, West Virginia, for this construction and remodeling in parts of the old building. It was completed March 16, 1940. The cost of the east wing was $208,000 and the cost of the jail was $246,000 for a total cost of $454,000.

Casto, James E. 1985. Huntington: An Illustrated History. Northridge, CA: Windsor Publications, Inc.

Cabell County, West Virginia Heritage 1809-1906. 1996. Marceline, MO: Walsworth Publishing Company.

Geiger, Joe Jr. 1991. Civil War in Cabell County, WV 1861-65. Charleston, WV: Pictorial Histories Publishing.

Rice, Otis K. 1985. West Virginia: A History. Lexington, KY: The University of Kentucky Press.

Wallace, George Selden. 1935. Cabell County Annals and Families. Richmond, VA: Garrett & Massie Publishers

Williams, John Alexander. 1993. West Virginia: A History for Beginners. Charleston, WV: Appalachian Editions.

Dr. Robert Jay Dilger, Director, Institute for Public Affairs and Professor, Department of Political Science, West Virginia University.


History of the Roman Walls of Lugo

Construction of the wall began in 265AD and was not completed until 310AD. During this period, much of Roman Hispania was under threat from foreign invasion. It is believed however that the wall was built to defend the city from revolts by local tribes, rather than foreign invaders.

Despite the imposing nature of the Roman Wall, it was breached on many occasions. In the fifth century, the Germanic Suevi invaded the city. Then in 457, it was invaded by the Visigoths, who captured and settled the town. When the Moors invaded Spain, Lugo was ravaged in 714 but was recaptured by Alfonso I of Asturias in 755. Over 200 years later, the town was once again invaded, this time by the Normans in 968. The town was not restored until the following century.

Today the Roman walls of Lugo are a main attraction to the town for tourists as well as those walking the Camino de Santiago.


Skirmish at Lugo, 7 January 1809 - History

Facts about January
Customs and Traditions

Gemstone : Garnet
Flower : Carnation

The beginning of the new year and the time to make New Year resolutions.

January was established as the first the first month of the year by the Roman Calendar. It was named after the god Janus (Latin word for door). Janus has two faces which allowed him to look both backwards into the old year and forwards into the new one at the same time. He was the 'spirit of the opening'.

In the very earliest Roman calendars there were no months of January or February at all. The ancient Roman calendar had only ten months and the new year started the year on 1 March. To the Romans, ten was a very important number. Even when January (or Januarius as the Romans called it) was added, the New Year continued to start in March. It remained so in England and her colonies until about 200 years ago.

The Anglo-Saxons called the first month Wolf monath because wolves came into the villages in winter in search of food.

New Year's Day

New Year's Day is the first day of the year, in the Gregorian calendar. In modern times, it is the 1st January. It is a time for looking forward and wishing for a good year ahead. It is also a holiday.

People welcome in the New Year on the night before. Isso é chamado New Year's Eve. In Scotland, people celebrate with a lively festival called Hogmanay. All over Britain there are parties, fireworks, singing and dancing, to ring out the old year and ring in the new. As the clock - Big Ben - strikes midnight, people link arms and sing a song called Auld Lang Syne. It reminds them of old and new friends.

The Door Custom

In the old days, the New Year started with a custom called 'first footing', which was suppose to bring good luck to people for the coming year. As soon as midnight had passed and January 1st had started, people used to wait behind their doors for a dark haired person to arrive. The visitor carried a piece of coal, some bread, some money and some greenery. These were all for good luck - the coal to make sure that the house would always be warm, the bread to make sure everyone in the house would have enough food to eat, money so that they would have enough money, and the greenery to make sure that they had a long life.

The visitor would then take a pan of dust or ashes out of the house with him, thus signifying the departure of the old year.

New Year Superstition

The 1st of January was a highly significant day in medieval superstitions regarding prosperity, or lack of it, in the year ahead. A flat cake was put on one of the horns of a cow in every farmyard. The farmer and his workers would then sing a song and dance around the cow until the cake was thrown to the ground. If it fell in front of the cow that signified good luck to fall behind indicated the opposite.

Unluckiest Day of the Year

It was an old Saxon belief that 2nd January was one of the unluckiest days of the whole year. Those unfortunate enough to be born on this day could expect to dies an unpleasant death.

Coldest Month and day of the Year

January regularly produces frost, ice and snow and is the chilliest month of the year in Britain.

St Hilary's feast day on 13th January has gained the reputation of being the coldest day of the year due to past cold events starting on or around this date.

One of the most severe winters in history began around 13 January in 1205, when the Thames in London froze over and ale and wine turned to solid ice and were sold by weight.

& quotSo began a frost which continued till the two and twentieth day of March, so that the ground could not be tilled whereof it came to pass that, in summer following a quarter of wheat was sold for a mark of silver in many places of England, which for the more part in the days of King Henry the Second was sold for twelve pence a quarter of beans or peas for half a mark a quarter of oats for thirty pence, that were wont to be sold for fourpence. Also the money was so sore clipped that there was no remedy but to have it renewed."—Stowe's Chronicle

In 1086, a great frost also started spreading over the country on St Hilary's Day.


Frost (ice) on cars is common in December and January

River Thames Frost Fairs

The worst cold spells in Britain occurred between 1550 and 1750. The climate during this time was known as the Little Ice Age, when winters were so cold that the Thames froze over each year. It was not uncommon for the freeze to last over three months, as in the case of the winters of 1683 - 1684 and 1715 - 1716.

The first recorded Frost Fair was held on the frozen river Thames in London in 1608. It had tents, sideshows, food stalls and even included ice bowling!

The Thames had frozen over several times before 1608. In the 16th century, Henry VIII is said to have traveled all the way from central London to Greenwich by sleigh along the river during the winter of 1536 and Elizabeth I took walks on the ice during the winter of 1564.

The last Frost Fair was held in the winter of 1814. It began on February 1, and lasted just four days. An elephant was led across the river below Blackfriars Bridge.

St Agnes's Eve 20 January

This was the day on which girls and unmarried women who wished to dream of their future husbands would perform certain rituals before going to bed. These included transferring pins one by one from a pincushion to their sleeve whilst reciting the Lord's Prayer, or abstaining from food and drink all day, walking backwards up the stairs to bed, and eating a portion of dumb cake ( previously prepared with a group of friends in total silence and often containing an unpleasantly large portion of salt) before lying down to sleep.

St Agnes's Eve is a title of one of Keat's poems.

Customs of the Year's First New Moon

It is said that if you look through a silk handkerchief at the new moon, which has never been washed, the number of moons you see will be the number of years which will pass until you're married. But it is unlucky to see the new moon through a window.

To dream of your future husband, it is said that at the first appearance of the first new moon of the year you should go out and stand over the spars of a gate or stile and look at the moon saying:

All hail to thee moon, all hail to thee,
I prythee, good moon, reveal to me,
This night who my husband shall be.

Festivals and Traditions

Wassailing has been associated with Christmas and New Year as far back as the 1400s. It was a way of passing on good wishes among family and friends.

Evening before Epiphany. Twelfth Night marks the end of the medieval Christmas festivities and the end of Twelfthtide (the 12-day season after Christmas ending with Epiphany). Also called Twelfth Day Eve.

Also known as Old Christmas Day and Twelfthtide. On the twelfth day after Christmas, Christians celebrate the visit of the Magi or wise men to the baby Jesus.

St Distaff's Day

This was the day on which women had to return to work with the distaff (another name for a spindle) after the Christmas holiday.

The day on which work started again after Twelfth Night was known to countryfolk as Plough Monday: the day on which labourers had to return to the fields. The day was also nicknamed St Distaff's Day: the day on which women had to return to work with the distaff (another name for a spindle) after the Christmas holiday.

People went from door to door, rather like carol singers at Christmas times, but at New Year they were called 'wassailers'.

- Burns Night

The people of Scotland honour their greatest poet, Robert Burns. He was born on 25th January approximately 250 years ago (1759) and wrote his first song when he was sixteen. A traditional Scottish meal is neaps (swede), tatties (potato) and haggis washed down with whisky.

Anniversaries

1st - The London Credit Exchange Company issued the first traveler’s checks in 1772.

1st - The BBc began broadcasting its first programmes in 1927.

1st - Traffic policemen were introduced in Great Britain in 1931.

2nd - On this date in 1770, a huge Christmas pie was baked for holiday consumption in London. according to the Newcastle Chronicle, it was made of "two bushels of flour, twenty pounds of butter, four geese, two turkeys, two rabbits, for wild ducks, two woodcocks, six snipes, four partridges, two neats' tongues, two curlews, seven blackbirds, and six pigeons.. It was nearly nine feet in circumference at bottom, weigh[ed] about twelve stone."

4th - Louis Braille was born in 1809. He was three years old when an accident caused him to lose his sight.

9th - Income Tax was first introduced, at two shillings in the pound.

10th - The London Underground began operating in 1863.

11th - The first televised weather broadcast featuring a presenter on screen was transmitted from the BBC's Lime Grove Studios in 1954

11th - Charing Cross Station, London, opened in 1864

14th - Motorists were required by law to wear seat belts in 1986

17th - Robert Scott and his party reached the South Pole in 1912

18th - A.A. Milne born in 1882. English author of Winnie the Pooh stories.

21st The BBC in London made its first world broadcast in 1930

25th - Robert Burns was born 1759

27th - Mozart born in 1756 in Austria.
One of the world's greatest music composers.

28th - On the evening of this day in 1807 London's Pall Mall became the first street in the world to be lit by gas lights

29th - The Victoria Cross originated from this date in 1856. The medals were made from the metals of guns captured in the Crimea.

Mandy is the creator of the Woodlands Resources section of the Woodlands Junior website.
The two websites projectbritain.com and primaryhomeworkhelp.co.uk are the new homes for the Woodlands Resources.

Mandy left Woodlands in 2003 to work in Kent schools as an ICT Consulatant.
She now teaches computers at The Granville School and St. John's Primary School in Sevenoaks Kent.


Early history Edit

The regiment was raised by Francis Humberston MacKenzie, Chief of the Clan Mackenzie and later Lord Seaforth, as the 78th (Highlanders) Regiment of Foot (or The Ross-shire Buffs) on 8 March 1793. [3] First assembled at Fort George in July 1793, [4] the regiment moved to the Channel Islands in August 1893, [5] and embarked for Holland in September 1794 for service in the French Revolutionary Wars. [4] It saw action at the defence of Nijmegen in November 1794. [4] In a bayonet attack there the regiment lost one officer and seven men a further four officers and 60 men were wounded. [6] The regiment moved to England in April 1795 and then sailed to France for the Battle of Quiberon Bay in June 1795 and the landing at Île d'Yeu, off the Brittany coast, in September 1795, after which it was stationed in England. [4]

In 1794 the 78th raised a second battalion which, in July 1795, sailed for South Africa. [7] Here it took part in the successful attack by a British fleet under Sir George Elphinstone on the Dutch Cape Colony, then held by the forces of the Batavian Republic: the attack led to the capitulation by the Dutch Navy at Saldanha Bay and the capture of the colony by British forces in September 1796. [8] [6]

In March 1796 the 1st battalion sailed from England to South Africa where, in June that year it amalgamated with the 2nd battalion. [9] In November the newly merged regiment left South Africa for India. here it saw action at the Battle of Assaye in September 1803, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War. [4] During the battle the regiment were tasked with retaking the Maratha gun line. [10] For their part in this decisive victory, the 78th was presented with a special third colour by the East India Company, with the elephant symbol borne on the colour worn as a regimental badge. [11] Later, when stationed in Ceylon, the 78th acquired a baby elephant as a regimental mascot. It returned to Scotland with the regiment, and was finally presented to Edinburgh Zoo. [12]

Napoleonic Wars Edit

The regiment remained in India until it joined the Invasion of Java and the capture of Fort Cornelis in August 1811. [4] Leaving Java in September 1816, the vessel the battalion was travelling on, Frances Charlotte, was wrecked off Preparis, Burma, on 5 November on the way to Bengal. There were relatively few deaths and the Prince Blucher rescued most of the survivors, who it carried to Calcutta cruisers from the British East India Company rescued the remainder. Prince Blucher carried a part of the battalion on to England, arriving at Portsmouth in June 1817. [13]

A second battalion was again raised in May 1804. [3] In late 1805 this embarked for Gibraltar, [14] before sailing to Italy and participating in the Battle of Maida in July 1806. [4] It also took part in the Alexandria Expedition in spring 1807. [15] Three companies of the regiment were captured at Al Hamed near Rosetta: among the prisoners was Thomas Keith who converted to Islam and entered Ottoman service. [16] Returning home in January 1808, a draft from the battalion were present at the disastrous Dutch Walcheren Campaign in autumn 1809, which suffered substantial losses due to malaria. [17] Although under strength, the battalion embarked for Holland in January 1814, and routed a larger French force during a skirmish at Merksem, near Antwerp. Remaining in Belgium on garrison duty, the battalion was in reserve at Nieuwpoort during the Waterloo campaign, returning home in February 1816. [12]

By 1817 both the 1st and 2nd battalions were stationed in Scotland, where they were amalgamated the same year. [18] The regiment was then posted to Ireland until 1826. [12]


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