John B. Hood

John B. Hood


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

John Bell Hood era um americano graduado em West Point, Hood juntou-se à Confederação em 1861 e ganhou a reputação de um talentoso comandante de campo durante a Campanha da Península e a Segunda Batalha de Bull Run em 1862. Hood serviu como comandante de divisão nas Batalhas de Antietam e Fredericksburg, e perdeu uma perna e o uso de um de seus braços depois de ser gravemente ferido nas batalhas de Gettysburg e Chickamauga em 1863. Promovido a general em 1864, Hood serviu no comando independente do Exército do Tennessee durante o Campanha de Atlanta. Suas táticas agressivas acabaram se mostrando fúteis contra a força maior da União de William T. Sherman, e Hood mais tarde sofreu uma série de derrotas amargas durante a campanha de Franklin-Nashville no final de 1864. Após a Guerra Civil, Hood trabalhou como corretor de algodão e agente de seguros na Louisiana. Ele morreu em 1879 aos 48 anos.

John Bell Hood: Primeira Vida e Serviço Militar

Filho de um médico, John Bell Hood nasceu em Owingsville, Kentucky, em 1º de junho de 1831. Em 1849, Hood foi nomeado para a Academia Militar dos Estados Unidos em West Point, onde estudou com os futuros generais da Guerra Civil James B. McPherson e Philip H. Sheridan. Hood lutou para atender às demandas estritas da vida em West Point e terminou em 44º de 52 cadetes após a formatura em 1853.

Nomeado segundo-tenente na 4ª Infantaria dos EUA, Hood foi designado para o serviço de guarnição em Fort Jones, no norte da Califórnia. Em 1855, ele garantiu uma transferência para a Segunda Cavalaria dos Estados Unidos em Jefferson Banks, Missouri, onde serviu sob os futuros generais confederados Albert Sidney Johnston e Robert E. Lee. A unidade foi transferida para o Texas no final daquele ano, e Hood passou os cinco anos seguintes patrulhando a fronteira. Em 1857 foi ferido na mão por uma flecha durante uma luta com os índios, e mais tarde foi citado por bravura e promovido a primeiro tenente. Hood adorou a emoção do campo e, em 1860, recusou uma nomeação de prestígio para servir como instrutor de cavalaria em West Point em favor de permanecer na fronteira.

John Bell Hood: Guerra Civil

Hood simpatizava com a causa do sul e frequentemente afirmava que renunciaria ao Exército dos EUA caso seu estado natal, Kentucky, ingressasse na Confederação. Embora Kentucky não tenha se separado, Hood apresentou sua renúncia em abril de 1861 e foi nomeado primeiro-tenente da cavalaria no exército confederado. Ele passou os primeiros dias da guerra treinando cavalaria em Yorktown, Virgínia, antes de ser promovido a coronel e colocado no comando de um regimento do Texas. Esta unidade logo foi expandida para a força de brigada e, em março de 1862, Hood foi promovido a general de brigada no comando do que ficou conhecido como "Brigada do Texas".

Hood viu sua primeira luta significativa em maio de 1862 durante a Campanha da Península, na qual sua brigada enfrentou uma força da União durante a Batalha de Eltham's Landing. Ele consolidaria sua reputação como um lutador destemido um mês depois, quando liderou pessoalmente um ataque que invadiu as linhas da União durante a Batalha de Moinho de Gaines. Sua coragem sob ataque e sua reputação como líder logo lhe renderam o comando de uma divisão na corporação do General James Longstreet. A estrela de Hood continuou a subir durante a Segunda Batalha de Bull Run em agosto de 1862, quando sua divisão liderou uma manobra de flanco maciça que derrotou as forças da União sob o comando do General John Pope. Menos de um mês depois, a divisão de Hood sofreu quase 50 por cento de baixas na Batalha de Antietam, na qual seus homens reforçaram as tropas sob o comando do general Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson e embotaram um ataque da União. Esse desempenho rendeu elogios contínuos a Hood e, em outubro de 1862, o jovem de 31 anos se tornou o general mais jovem do Exército de Lee na Virgínia do Norte.

Hood participou da vitória confederada na Batalha de Fredericksburg em dezembro de 1862 e serviu sob Longstreet no Cerco de Suffolk no início de 1863. Sua divisão mais tarde desempenharia um papel significativo na Batalha de Gettysburg em julho de 1863. Embora ele discordasse de seu ordens, Hood empreendeu um ataque ambicioso à posição do sindicato em Little Round Top. Seus homens foram repelidos pelas forças da União, em particular o regimento liderado pelo coronel Joshua Chamberlain. Entre as vítimas estava Hood, que foi gravemente ferido no braço esquerdo por fragmentos de um projétil de artilharia. Ele perderia o uso do membro pelo resto da vida.

John Bell Hood: Western Theatre e a campanha de Atlanta

Depois de passar dois meses convalescendo em Richmond, Hood voltou ao corpo de Longstreet, que havia sido transferido para o Western Theatre para ajudar o Exército do General Braxton Bragg do Tennessee. Poucos dias depois de voltar à sua antiga unidade em setembro de 1863, Hood liderou um ataque durante a Batalha de Chickamauga. Enquanto o ataque teve sucesso, Hood foi ferido na coxa por uma bala de mosquete, sofrendo sua segunda lesão grave em menos de três meses. A gravidade do ferimento exigiu que sua perna direita fosse amputada, mas Hood sobreviveu contra todas as adversidades e foi promovido a tenente-general por sua bravura.

Hood voltou a campo na primavera de 1864, apesar de seus ferimentos, que o obrigaram a usar uma perna artificial e a cavalgar amarrado ao cavalo. Ele assumiu um comando de corpo no Exército do Tennessee do General Joseph E. Johnston, que estava então tentando retardar a marcha do General William T. Sherman em direção a Atlanta. O agressivo Hood foi rápido em criticar Johnston, cuja estratégia de retirada estratégica permitira que Sherman se fechasse sobre a cidade. Furioso com as táticas cautelosas de seu comandante, Hood escreveu uma série de cartas a Richmond exigindo que Johnston fosse substituído. Sua campanha teve sucesso e, em julho de 1864, Hood substituiu Johnston como comandante do Exército do Tennessee.

Temporariamente promovido a general completo, Hood prontamente lançou uma série de ofensivas ousadas contra as forças de Sherman nas Batalhas de Peachtree Creek, Atlanta, Ezra Church e Jonesborough, todas fracassando. Hood abandonou Atlanta para o controle da União em setembro de 1864, tendo sofrido mais de 50 por cento de baixas em sua força de 65.000 homens. Hood então moveu os remanescentes de seu exército para o noroeste, na esperança de atrair Sherman para o Tennessee. O plano fracassou, pois Sherman simplesmente despachou o general George H. Thomas para assumir o controle das forças da União no Tennessee enquanto ele permanecia na Geórgia para empreender sua marcha para o mar.

Durante a Campanha Franklin-Nashville subsequente, Hood foi inicialmente bem-sucedido em rechaçar o Exército de Ohio do General John M. Schofield, mas sofreu uma derrota devastadora na Batalha de Franklin no final de novembro de 1864. No que costuma ser conhecido como o “ A carga do oeste de Pickett ”, Hood tomou a decisão impetuosa de despachar quase 20.000 homens em uma ofensiva contra uma posição fortificada da União. O ataque resultou em mortes surpreendentes e Schofield conseguiu se unir ao General George H. Thomas em Nashville. Apesar de seu número inferior e exército maltratado, Hood tentou sitiar a cidade. Thomas acabaria por lançar um grande ataque a Hood durante a Batalha de Nashville em meados de dezembro de 1864, paralisando as forças de Hood e infligindo mais de 6.000 baixas. Tendo sido derrotado de forma decisiva, Hood foi substituído como comandante do Exército do Tennessee em janeiro de 1865. Mais tarde, ele foi enviado para relatar os assuntos militares no Mississippi, onde se rendeu às forças da União em maio de 1865.

John Bell Hood: vida posterior

Hood passou seus últimos anos em Nova Orleans como comerciante de algodão e presidente de uma seguradora de vida. Em 1868, ele se casou com uma mulher da Louisiana chamada Anna Marie Hennen, com quem teria 11 filhos, incluindo três pares de gêmeos. A esposa de Hood e um de seus filhos morreram durante uma epidemia de febre amarela em 1879, e ele sucumbiu à doença logo em seguida aos 48 anos. Enquanto os 10 filhos restantes de Hood ficaram inicialmente órfãos, eles foram ajudados pela renda de suas memórias póstumas e foram finalmente adotados por famílias em todo o Sul e em Nova York.


John B. Hood

(marcador principal) John B. Hood
Maj. Gen, C.S.A.,
Ferido
20 de setembro de 1863. (marcador de beira de estrada) Para detectar onde Gen. Hood
Estava ferido.

Erguido em 1890 pela Comissão do Parque Militar Nacional de Chickamauga e Chattanooga. (Número do marcador MT-448.)

Tópicos Este marcador histórico está listado nesta lista de tópicos: Guerra, Civil dos EUA. Uma data histórica significativa para esta entrada é 20 de setembro de 1863.

Localização. 34 & deg 55.195 & # 8242 N, 85 & deg 15.935 & # 8242 W. Marker está em Fort Oglethorpe, Geórgia, no condado de Walker. O marcador pode ser alcançado a partir de Vittetoe Chickamauga Road ao norte de Dyer Road, à esquerda ao viajar para o norte. Na trilha à beira da estrada, siga a placa "Para o local onde o general Hood foi ferido". Toque para ver o mapa. O marcador está nesta área dos correios: Chickamauga GA 30707, Estados Unidos da América. Toque para obter instruções.

Outros marcadores próximos. Pelo menos 8 outros marcadores estão a uma curta distância deste marcador. The Wounding of Hood Site (dentro de uma distância de grito deste marcador) Longstreet's Corps (dentro de uma distância de grito deste marcador) Headquarters Shell Monument (cerca de 300 pés de distância, medido em uma linha direta) Bledsoe's C.S.A. Missouri Battery (cerca de 300 pés de distância) Brigada de Croxton. (cerca de 120 metros de distância) Brigada de Kershaw (cerca de 120 metros de distância) Brigada de Van Derveer

(cerca de 600 pés de distância) Divisão de Brannan (cerca de 700 pés de distância). Toque para obter uma lista e um mapa de todos os marcadores em Fort Oglethorpe.

Veja também . . .
1. John Bell Hood - Civil War Trust. (Enviado em 24 de setembro de 2015, por Brandon Fletcher de Chattanooga, Tennessee.)
2. Parque Nacional Militar Chickamauga e Chattanooga. National Park Service (Enviado em 25 de setembro de 2015.)


Hood & # 8217s Texas Brigade: The Elite Confederate Shock Troops

Superficialmente, a Brigada do Texas não parecia destinada à grandeza na Guerra Civil Americana. O Texas era um dos estados menos povoados da Confederação, o mais distante das principais batalhas, e seus soldados estavam incrivelmente mal equipados.

No entanto, os homens do Texas desafiaram as probabilidades e desempenharam um papel significativo em quase todas as batalhas do teatro oriental da guerra. Apesar de seu início humilde, eles acabaram se tornando uma das unidades de elite e mais conceituadas de toda a Confederação.

Brigada do Texas, inverno de 1861-62.

Os texanos chegam

Quando a Brigada do Texas foi formada pela primeira vez, parecia destinada ao fracasso. Os homens apareceram com todas as armas que tinham em casa, o que levou a uma unidade empunhando mosquetes da década de 1830, espingardas, rifles de caça e pistolas. Alguns deles nem tinham armas.

No entanto, a Confederação tinha os texanos em alta conta. Os texanos se tornaram lendários por sua guerra de independência contra o México (que se tornou a Guerra Mexicano-Americana) e por batalhas bem divulgadas como a do Álamo.

Uma faca supostamente usada por Davy Crockett durante a Batalha do Álamo. Foto: Brian Reading CC BY-SA 3.0

A Confederação também tinha esperança de que territórios escravistas ocidentais, como o Território do Novo México, seguiriam o exemplo (e, de fato, parte do Novo México se separou e se tornou o Território Confederado do Arizona). Como resultado, o governo confederado garantiu que os texanos obtivessem equipamentos mais modernos, em particular o rifle Enfield Pattern 1853.

1853 rifle-mosquete Enfield

Como muitas unidades, a Brigada do Texas foi inicialmente comandada pelo homem que a organizou, neste caso o coronel Louis T. Wigfall. No entanto, Wigfall renunciou ao comando no início de 1862, e o general John Bell Hood assumiu o comando.

Hood & # 8217s Brigade veriam ação pela primeira vez na Batalha de Eltham & # 8217s Landing. Embora Eltham & # 8217s Landing tenha sido apenas um pequeno compromisso durante a Campanha da Península, foi lá que os texanos começaram a construir sua lenda.

Louis Trezevant Wigfall

Construindo uma lenda

Em Eltham & # 8217s Landing, os homens de Hood & # 8217s lutaram lado a lado com o também lendário Hampton & # 8217s Legion. O general Joseph E. Johnston, encarregado das forças confederadas durante a batalha, ordenou aos texanos que & # 8220 sentissem o inimigo suavemente e recuassem. & # 8221 Em resposta, os texanos avançaram sobre as linhas da União e os expulsaram do campo.

Após a batalha, um Longstreet perplexo teria perguntado & # 8220O que seus texanos teriam feito, senhor, se eu tivesse ordenado que eles atacassem e expulsassem o inimigo? & # 8221 ao que Hood respondeu, & # 8220 Suponho que, General, eles os teriam empurrado para o rio e tentado nadar e capturar as canhoneiras. & # 8221

Joseph E. Johnston

Hood liderou seus homens diretamente na batalha e quase foi morto como resultado. A certa altura, ele ordenou que seus homens avançassem com armas descarregadas, pois temia que atirassem acidentalmente contra os escaramuçadores confederados em retirada.

Em vez disso, eles encontraram uma linha sindical. Um cabo da União ergueu sua arma para atirar diretamente em Hood, mas um dos texanos desobedeceu às ordens e manteve sua arma carregada. Esse homem matou o Union cabo antes que ele pudesse atirar.

Mapa de Eltham & # 8217s Landing Battlefield e áreas de estudo pelo American Battlefield Protection Program.

Em seguida, os texanos viram uma ação significativa durante as Batalhas de Sete Dias, particularmente em Gaines & # 8217 Mill. Enquanto o sol se punha no campo de batalha, as linhas da União pareciam ter resistido ao ataque confederado. No entanto, o General Longstreet queria tentar mais um ataque antes que o dia acabasse.

Hood liderou sua brigada em um ataque rápido e agressivo que rompeu o centro da União, deixando todo o exército do Norte em desordem. A 5ª Cavalaria dos EUA tentou um contra-ataque para evitar que as linhas ianques entrassem em colapso total, mas os texanos se mantiveram firmes, capturando muitos dos cavaleiros e infligindo pesadas baixas.

Embora a vitória em Gains & # 8217 Mill tenha custado um alto preço para a Brigada do Texas - cerca de 25% deles foram vítimas - sua lenda foi cimentada.

& # 8220Battle of Gaines Mill, Valley of the Chickahominy, Virginia, 27 de junho de 1862. & # 8221 Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer, 1860 & # 8211 1985.

No Grosso da Guerra

Durante a maior parte da guerra, Hood & # 8217s Texas Brigade continuaria a lutar sob Robert E. Lee no Exército da Virgínia do Norte, e em particular com Longstreet & # 8217s First Corps. No final de julho de 1862, Hood ganhou o comando de uma divisão inteira, incluindo a Brigada do Texas.

Em seguida, a brigada viu uma ação significativa em Second Manassas, onde liderou o ataque crucial do Longstreet & # 8217s no flanco esquerdo do Pope & # 8217s no último dia da batalha. Eles ultrapassaram o 5º e o 10º Zouaves de Nova York, causando cerca de 300 baixas aos 500 homens do 5º Zouaves de Nova York ao longo de dez minutos.

Um grupo de homens está parado perto dos trilhos da ferrovia Manassas Railroad Junction em 1862 com um trem ao fundo. Foto: AlbertHerring CC BY 2.0

Finalmente, eles capturaram uma bateria e várias posições-chave ao longo da batalha. No entanto, a Brigada do Texas sofreu quase 700 baixas durante os três dias de batalha, deixando-os gravemente esgotados para a batalha ainda maior que estava por vir.

A Batalha de Sharpsburg (Antietam) foi a batalha de um dia mais sangrenta da guerra. O corpo do General Thomas & # 8220Stonewall & # 8221 Jackson & # 8217s estava envolvido em alguns dos combates mais ferozes, centrados em torno de um infame milharal que mudou de mãos mais de meia dúzia de vezes durante a batalha.

Thomas Jonathan & # 8220Stonewall & # 8221 Jackson

Os homens de Hood & # 8217s se envolveram na batalha por volta das 7h, preenchendo uma lacuna crucial na linha de Jackson & # 8217s e forçando as tropas da União a voltarem para o milharal. Os texanos suportaram o peso dos contra-ataques da União, enfrentando a lendária Brigada de Ferro e duas corporações. Eles sofreram baixas incríveis no processo.

No final do dia, Robert E. Lee perguntou a Hood onde estavam seus homens, ao que ele respondeu de forma infame & # 8220 morto no campo. & # 8221 A Brigada do Texas sofreu cerca de 60% das baixas.

Artilharia de reserva não desdobrada nos campos próximos ao quartel-general de McClellan e # 8217s na Phillip Pry House, provavelmente tirada dois dias após a batalha. Olhando para o leste em direção a Keedysville Pike. Antietam Battlefield

Um dos momentos de maior orgulho da Brigada & # 8217s ocorreu durante a Batalha de Gettysburg, quando Hood e seus homens foram escolhidos para tomar o terreno difícil em Devil & # 8217s Den. O próprio Hood foi ferido no início do ataque quando uma bomba explodiu perto dele, ferindo seu braço esquerdo.

Embora Hood nunca recuperasse o uso de seu braço, seus homens tomaram Devil & # 8217s Den após intensos combates e graves baixas. No entanto, os texanos finalmente encontraram seu rival quando foram forçados a recuar depois de atacar o Little Round Top.

Little Round Top, encosta oeste, fotografado por Timothy H. O & # 8217Sullivan, 1863.

Última Guerra e Legado

Depois que Hood se recuperou, ele e sua brigada foram transferidos para o Oeste, onde lutaram em Chickamauga. Os texanos desempenharam um papel crucial mais uma vez, liderando o assalto Longstreet & # 8217s contra uma lacuna na linha Union.

Embora este tenha sido um ponto de viragem na batalha que levou à vitória dos confederados, Hood sofreu outra lesão grave e teve que amputar a perna direita. Embora Hood retornasse à batalha, esta foi a última vez que ele liderou diretamente a brigada. No entanto, eles mantiveram o apelido & # 8220Hood & # 8217s Brigade. & # 8221

Tenente-general John B. Hood

A brigada participou dos cercos de Chattanooga e Knoxville, mas retornou à Virgínia em fevereiro de 1864. Sob o comando do general John Gregg, a Brigada do Texas chegou bem a tempo de impedir que as forças confederadas invadissem o deserto.

Robert E. Lee ficou tão feliz com a chegada deles que cavalgou até eles e começou a liderar pessoalmente seu avanço. No entanto, os texanos se opuseram, agarrando as rédeas de seu cavalo e dizendo-lhe que o risco era muito grande. Lee acabou cedendo a pedido de Longstreet & # 8217s.

Vista do parque de artilharia capturada na Batalha de Chattanooga

Com a rendição em Appomattox, a Brigada do Texas havia se tornado uma das unidades mais lendárias do Exército Confederado. De 4.400 homens, apenas cerca de 600 permaneceram para se render com Robert E. Lee.

Lembrada com razão ao lado da Brigada de Stonewall e da Legião de Hampton & # 8217s, a Brigada do Texas formou uma das unidades de elite do Exército Confederado e desempenhou papéis cruciais em muitas batalhas importantes.

Incluindo algumas batalhas onde foram mantidos na reserva, eles participaram de quase todos os conflitos no teatro oriental. Para uma brigada que começou a guerra sem nem mesmo ter armas suficientes para todos os seus homens, os texanos tiveram um desempenho melhor do que deveriam.


Conteúdo

Hood seguiu sua derrota na campanha de Atlanta movendo-se para o noroeste para interromper as linhas de abastecimento do major-general William T. Sherman de Chattanooga, na esperança de desafiar Sherman em uma batalha que poderia ser travada em vantagem de Hood. Após um breve período de perseguição, Sherman decidiu se libertar e conduzir sua marcha para o mar, deixando a questão do exército de Hood e a defesa do Tennessee para Thomas. Hood elaborou um plano para marchar para o Tennessee e derrotar a força de Thomas enquanto ela estava geograficamente dividida. Ele perseguiu o exército do major-general John M. Schofield de Pulaski a Columbia e então tentou interceptá-lo e destruí-lo em Spring Hill. Por causa de uma série de falhas de comunicação de comando confederado na Batalha de Spring Hill (29 de novembro de 1864), Schofield foi capaz de se retirar de Columbia e passar pelo exército de Hood em Spring Hill relativamente ileso. [4]

Furioso com seu fracasso em Spring Hill, Hood perseguiu Schofield ao norte e encontrou a União em Franklin atrás de fortes fortificações. Na Batalha de Franklin em 30 de novembro, Hood ordenou que quase 31.000 de seus homens atacassem as fábricas da Union antes que Schofield pudesse se retirar através do rio Harpeth e escapar para Nashville. Os soldados da União repeliram vários ataques e infligiram mais de 6.000 baixas aos confederados, que incluíam um grande número de generais confederados importantes, causando graves danos à liderança do Exército do Tennessee. [5]

Schofield retirou-se de Franklin durante a noite e marchou para as obras defensivas de Nashville em 1º de dezembro, ficando sob o comando de Thomas, que agora tinha uma força combinada de aproximadamente 55.000 homens. [2] Em geral, suas tropas eram veteranas, o IV Corpo sob o Brig. O Gen. Thomas J. Wood e o XXIII Corpo de Schofield lutaram na campanha de Atlanta e o "Destacamento do Exército do Tennessee" do Major General Andrew J. Smith (uma parte do recém-descontinuado XVI Corpo de exército foi redesignado com este nome incomum no dia 6 de dezembro) tendo lutado em Vicksburg, na Campanha Rio Vermelho, no Tupelo contra o SD Lee e Nathan Bedford Forrest, e no Missouri contra Sterling Price. Embora a cavalaria de Wilson tivesse experiência em combate, a maior parte dela tinha sido do tipo errado nas mãos de Nathan Bedford Forrest, John Hunt Morgan ou Joe Wheeler. Apenas a Divisão do Major General James B. Steedman não tinha experiência. Era composto por tropas de guarnição e guardas ferroviários do Tennessee e da Geórgia e incluía oito regimentos de tropas coloridas dos Estados Unidos.

As forças da União vinham construindo obras defensivas ao redor de Nashville desde o tempo em que a cidade foi ocupada em fevereiro de 1862. [6] Em 1864, uma linha defensiva semicircular da União de 11 quilômetros de extensão nos lados sul e oeste da cidade protegia Nashville de ataques de essas direções. A linha era cravejada de fortes, sendo o maior Fort Negley. A linha da trincheira foi estendida para o oeste após 1 de dezembro. [7] O rio Cumberland formou uma barreira defensiva natural nos lados norte e leste da cidade. As tropas de Smith chegaram pelo rio em 30 de novembro, e seus transportes foram escoltados por uma poderosa frota de canhoneiras de tinclad e de ferro. Assim, a barreira do rio foi bem defendida.

De leste a oeste, a linha defensiva era comandada pela divisão de Steedman, o XXIII Corpo de exército, o IV Corpo de exército e o Destacamento de Corpo de exército de Smith XVI. [8] Dado o fato de que o Exército da União era composto por tropas do Exército de Cumberland, Exército do Ohio, Exército do Tennessee, Distrito de Etowah e Post of Nashville, a força em Nashville não tinha nome oficial. [9]

O Exército de Hood do Tennessee chegou ao sul da cidade em 2 de dezembro e assumiu posições enfrentando as forças da União dentro da cidade. Como ele não era forte o suficiente para atacar as fortificações da União, Hood optou pela defensiva. Em vez de repetir seu ataque frontal infrutífero em Franklin, ele se entrincheirou e esperou, na esperança de que Thomas o atacasse. Então, depois que Thomas esmagou seu exército contra as entrincheiramentos confederados, Hood poderia contra-atacar e tomar Nashville. [10]

A linha confederada de cerca de seis quilômetros de fortificações enfrentava a parte voltada para o sul da linha da União (a parte ocupada por Steedman e Schofield). Da direita para a esquerda estavam o corpo do major-general Benjamin F. Cheatham, o tenente-general Stephen D. Lee e o tenente-general Alexander P. Stewart. Cavalaria comandada pelo Brig. O general James R. Chalmers estava no sudoeste da cidade. [11] O flanco esquerdo confederado foi protegido por cinco pequenos redutos destacados, cada um com dois a quatro canhões com guarnições de cerca de 150 homens cada. [12]

Hood cometeu um sério erro estratégico antes da batalha. Em 2 de dezembro, ele enviou as três brigadas da Divisão do Corpo de Cheatham de William B. Bate para atacar a ferrovia Nashville e Chattanooga entre Nashville e Murfreesboro, bem como a guarnição da União nesta última cidade. [13] Três dias depois, ele enviou mais duas brigadas de infantaria e duas divisões de cavalaria, todas sob o comando de Forrest, para reforçar Bate. [14] Hood acreditava que esse desvio tiraria Thomas das fortificações de Nashville, permitindo que Hood derrotasse Thomas em detalhes ou se apoderasse de Nashville com um golpe de Estado assim que sua guarnição estivesse esgotada. [15] Enquanto a ferrovia entre Nashville e Murfreesboro foi quebrada em vários lugares, a guarnição de Murfreesboro expulsou os confederados na Terceira Batalha de Murfreesboro (também chamada de Batalha dos Cedros) em 7 de dezembro. [16] Além disso, Thomas não se deixou enganar por esse desvio e permaneceu em suas fortificações até que estivesse pronto para atacar em seus próprios termos. A Divisão de Bate e uma das duas brigadas de infantaria anexadas voltaram a Nashville, mas Hood havia diminuído seriamente suas forças já em desvantagem numérica, e também privou seu exército de sua unidade mais forte e móvel, Forrest e sua cavalaria. [17]


Sede do general John B. Hood

O general Hood, comandando o Departamento de Tennessee e Geórgia para o Exército Confederado, fez seu quartel-general nesta casa em 19 de outubro de 1864 em sua retirada de Atlanta para o Tennessee via Gadsden. Seu exército somava aproximadamente 40.000 soldados.

Erguido pela Sociedade Histórica do Condado de Cherokee.

Tópicos Este marcador histórico está listado nestas listas de tópicos: Notable Places & bull War, US Civil. Uma data histórica significativa para esta entrada é 19 de outubro de 1864.

Localização. 34 e 16.551 e # 8242 N, 85 e 40.488 e # 8242 W. Marker está localizado em Cedar Bluff, Alabama, no condado de Cherokee. O marcador está na interseção da rota 273 do Alabama e da rota 275 do condado, à direita ao viajar para o sul na rota 273 do estado. Localizado no jardim da frente da casa. Toque para ver o mapa. O marcador está nesta área dos correios: Cedar Bluff AL 35959, Estados Unidos da América. Toque para obter instruções.

Outros marcadores próximos. Pelo menos 8 outros marcadores estão dentro de 6 milhas deste marcador, medidos em linha reta. Round Mountain Iron Furnace (aprox. 4,4 milhas de distância) Tennessee, Alabama & Georgia Railway (aprox. 7,5 milhas de distância) Cornwall Furnace (aprox. 5,5 milhas de distância) David Hartline (aprox. 5,5 milhas de distância) History of Taff, Alabama (aprox. 5,3 milhas de distância) um marcador diferente também chamado Cornwall Furnace (aprox. 8,5 milhas de distância) Cornwall Furnace Memorial Park (aproximadamente 5,5 milhas de distância) Cherokee County Veterans Memorial (aprox. 8,5 milhas de distância). Toque para obter uma lista e um mapa de todos os marcadores em Cedar Bluff.


John B. Hood - HISTÓRIA

Existem mais de 2.200 veteranos confederados e suas esposas enterrados no Cemitério do Estado do Texas. Pesquisar um ancestral que lutou pela Confederação pode ser uma tarefa tediosa e difícil. No entanto, as recompensas podem ser revigorantes e esclarecedoras, uma vez que a história é desenvolvida e concluída para as gerações futuras desfrutarem e se orgulharem.

É objetivo do Projeto de Pesquisa da Confederação do Cemitério Estadual do Texas ser capaz de contar a história de cada veterano da Confederação e seu cônjuge para a pesquisa genealógica. Cada indivíduo enterrado no cemitério tem uma página individual na Web que inclui nome, data de nascimento, data de morte, data de sepultamento, pequeno esboço biográfico, fotografia individual e fotografia da lápide. Portanto, é nosso objetivo sermos capazes de reunir o máximo de informações possível sobre cada indivíduo. Muitos desses homens e mulheres não têm nenhum registro e os pesquisadores do cemitério são forçados a contar com os familiares para ajudar a preencher as lacunas ou fornecer uma fotografia do indivíduo. Se você tiver alguma informação sobre um indivíduo enterrado no cemitério, entre em contato com o Departamento de Pesquisa do Cemitério pelo telefone (512) 463-0605.

PESQUISANDO UM VETERANO CONFEDERADO

Existem várias etapas na procura de um veterano da Confederação que podem ser caras e demoradas.

HISTÓRIA ORAL

A busca inicial por um confederado começa com uma história oral que foi transmitida de geração em geração. Além de dar um ponto de partida, uma história oral fornecerá informações básicas de pesquisa que são essenciais ao tentar localizar informações sobre um confederado. Isso tornará os esforços de pesquisa mais convenientes e menos frustrantes se alguém puder começar com um nome, posto e unidade pela qual lutou durante a Guerra Civil.

REGISTROS MILITARES

Uma vez que as informações básicas tenham sido estabelecidas. O próximo passo é entrar em contato com os Arquivos Nacionais em Washington D. C. para obter uma cópia do Compiled Military Service Record (CMSR) dos veteranos. O CMSR fornecerá informações pertinentes, como quando e onde o veterano se alistou e foi convocado para o serviço. Além disso, o CMSR fornecerá ao pesquisador as datas de presença ou ausência do trabalho, local de nascimento, comprovantes de pagamento e registros do hospital e da prisão, se disponíveis.

Os CMSRs não indicarão as batalhas travadas, porém, o “registro dos acontecimentos” dará contas do dia a dia do paradeiro e das atividades de uma empresa. Usando o CMSR, um pesquisador poderá comparar as datas de presença de seu ancestral em sua empresa com as datas em que a empresa esteve em um determinado dia. Ao comparar o CMSR de um Confederado com o "registro de eventos", um pesquisador será capaz de determinar a experiência de guerra daquele soldado em particular.

REGISTOS DE PENSÕES

Os registros militares fornecerão apenas informações relativas ao serviço militar. Outras fontes precisarão ser examinadas para obter uma perspectiva maior de toda a vida de um veterano. Os pedidos de pensão podem ser obtidos em seus respectivos repositórios estaduais. As inscrições variam de acordo com o estado, mas fornecem informações biográficas básicas. O aplicativo do Texas fornecerá a um pesquisador nome, data de nascimento, local de nascimento, ocupação, unidade, data em que entrou no serviço e declarações juramentadas sob juramento na Confederação.

Após a Guerra Civil, o Governo Federal decidiu não conceder pensão aos soldados que lutaram na Confederação. O governo federal deixou a decisão dos estados do sul de conceder uma pensão aos veteranos confederados. O Texas aprovou a Lei de Pensão Confederada em 1899. A lei afirmava que um soldado ou marinheiro Confederado era elegível se fosse um texano nativo ou um residente do Texas antes de 1880, e que tivesse mais de 60 anos e cuja deficiência fosse resultado direto do serviço durante a guerra civil. Além de soldados e marinheiros, as viúvas tinham direito a receber uma pensão se nunca se casassem novamente e residissem no Texas desde 1880. A lei da pensão foi posteriormente alterada para aliviar muitas dessas restrições, especialmente para as viúvas.

OUTROS MATERIAIS DE PESQUISA

as principais fontes são os registros militares e os pedidos de pensão. entretanto, essas não são as únicas fontes que o ajudarão em sua busca. a maioria dos arquivos estaduais fornecerá listas de unidades de seus registros de censos estaduais e estaduais específicos. esses registros serão capazes de verificar se uma pessoa é ou não seu veterano confederado. outras fontes serão o obituário e a certidão de óbito dessa pessoa, mais uma vez; eles fornecerão informações biográficas valiosas, bem como nomes de familiares sobreviventes.

LIVROS

A Guerra Civil é um dos assuntos mais populares estudados na história americana. Portanto, inúmeros livros foram publicados sobre praticamente todos os assuntos pertencentes à Guerra Civil. Talvez o conjunto de livros mais importante disponível para um pesquisador seja os Registros Oficiais da Guerra da Rebelião. O OR (como são chamados) contém 128 volumes de ordens oficiais, mapas de correspondência entre oficiais e generais e outros vários registros que surgiram da Guerra Civil. In addition to the OR, there are the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion, which contain 31 volumes of the same information as the OR.

Any search for a Confederate veteran will be time consuming and difficult, but in the end will be a rewarding experience.

TEXAS INVOLVEMENT IN THE CIVIL WAR

The Civil War was arguably one of the worst events in the history of the United States. It pitted the northern industrial states versus the southern agrarian states over the issue of states rights with the underlying issue, of course, being whether or not a new state or territory had the right to determine if it would be free or slave. The result was the Civil War, which would end up being the most costly American war in history. There were more casualties during the Civil War than in all the wars the country has fought combined.

The majority of the fighting took place east of the Mississippi River however, Texas played a vital role in the Confederate cause. Texas lay on the far western side of the Confederacy bordering Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico, thus geographically making it a strategic stronghold for the South. In addition to the geographic importance, Texas was the largest cotton-producer in the South, thus enabling it to trade with Mexico for military supplies and other necessities.

More than 75,000 Texans fought for the Confederacy, making major contributions throughout the War effort. The majority of the men would stay in Texas to defend the frontier against Indian and Union attacks, but many Texans would fight and even play prominent roles in many battles like Shiloh, Antietam, Gettysburg, and the ill-fated Atlanta Campaign. Finally, after much hardship on both the North and the South, Robert E. Lee and Joseph E. Johnson surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, and at Smithfield, North Carolina, in April 1865 respectively. However, the news was slow to reach Texas and the last battle of the Civil War was fought May 13, 1865 at Palmito Ranch near Brownsville with the determined Confederate forces defeating the Union. On May 26, 1865, General E. Kirby Smith surrendered the Trans-Mississippi Department.

CONFEDERATES AT THE TEXAS STATE CEMETERY

Following the Civil War, tensions between the North and the South were still high among politicians, soldiers, and citizens alike. The Federal Government provided Union soldiers with a pension, but offered no assistance to Confederate soldiers. As a result, the John B. Hood Camp of Confederate Veterans, with the help of the Albert Sidney Johnston Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, raised private funds to purchase land and erect buildings to be used as a convalescent home for many of the Confederate soldiers who were disabled, indigent, and unable to provide for themselves. In 1891, the responsibility of the Confederate Men s home was transferred from the John B. Hood Camp of Confederate Veterans and the United Daughters of the Confederacy to the State of Texas.

Upon receiving the Confederate Men s Home the State set forth guidelines for admittance into the Home. To be eligible, the Confederate veteran had to be disabled and indigent, a citizen of Texas on January 1, 1891, and to have served the cause of the South in an honorable manner. The application for admittance had to prove honorable service with a sworn affidavit of two "reputable persons." In addition, a physician s certificate had to show the nature of the disability, that the Confederate was unable to provide for himself, and that the applicant was not suffering from any contagious diseases.

Throughout the years, more than 2,000 Confederates lived at the Home, with the last veteran passing away in 1954 at 108. The Confederate Men s Home was expanded to include veterans from the Spanish-American War and World War I in 1939. Since there were no longer any Confederates alive, the other war veterans were transferred to the Kerrville State Hospital in 1963 to make room for University of Texas student housing.

The United Daughters of the Confederacy opened the Confederate Women s Home in December 1907, to provide care for spouses and widows of Confederate veterans and for women who played a role in the Confederacy. The State took control of the Women s home in 1911 and operated it until 1964. The remaining residents of the Home were moved to other health care facilities or family homes and the Women s Home was closed so that nurses from the Austin State Hospital could live at the facilities.

The majority of the individuals who stayed at the Men s Home were indigent farmers who were so badly injured during the war they were unable to care for themselves as they got older. The Home was a place for these men and women to live out the rest of their lives in peace. The Confederate Men s and Women s Homes were not limited to farmers, as men and women from all occupations and educational backgrounds comprised these two sanctuaries.

General Albert Sidney Johnston, the highest-ranking Confederate general, was killed on April 6, 1862, at the battle of Shiloh. In 1867, Johnston s body was moved from New Orleans, Louisiana, to his final resting-place at the Texas State Cemetery. Johnston joined Confederate generals August Buchel, William R. Scurry, and Benjamin McCulloch at the State Cemetery. Later, Generals Xavier B. Debray, William P. Hardeman, John Wharton, A. W. Terrell, and Adam R. Johnson joined the other honored generals who were buried in the Cemetery. As a result of the popularity of Johnston and the other generals, it was recognized that common Confederate soldiers would be allowed burial in the Cemetery upon their death. Although there was never any formal decree stating eligibility status for the Confederates until the 1950s, the Cemetery became the most appropriate final resting-place for these fallen southern heroes who fought during the Civil War.


Time Periods:

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.

Thomas W. Cutrer, &ldquoHood, John Bell,&rdquo Handbook of Texas Online, accessed June 26, 2021, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/hood-john-bell.

Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107 related to Copyright and &ldquoFair Use&rdquo for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law.

If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.


Ближайшие родственники

About Lieut. General John Bell Hood (CSA)

John Bell Hood (June 1 or June 29, 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. Hood had a reputation for bravery and aggressiveness that sometimes bordered on recklessness. Arguably one of the best brigade and division commanders in the Confederate States Army, Hood became increasingly ineffective as he was promoted to lead larger, independent commands late in the war, and his career was marred by his decisive defeats leading an army in the Atlanta Campaign and the Franklin-Nashville Campaign.

Hood's education at the United States Military Academy led to a career as a junior officer in both the infantry and cavalry of the antebellum U.S. Army in California and Texas. At the start of the Civil War, he offered his services to his adopted state of Texas. He achieved his reputation for aggressive leadership as a brigade commander in the army of Robert E. Lee during the Seven Days Battles in 1862, after which he was promoted to division command. He led a division under James Longstreet in the campaigns of 1862�. At the Battle of Gettysburg, he was severely wounded, rendering his left arm useless for the rest of his life. Transferred with many of Longstreet's troops to the Western Theater, Hood led a massive assault into a gap in the Union line at the Battle of Chickamauga, but was wounded again, requiring the amputation of his right leg.

Hood returned to field service during the Atlanta Campaign of 1864, and at the age of 33 promoted to temporary full general and command of the Army of Tennessee at the outskirts of Atlanta. There, he dissipated his army in a series of bold, but fruitless assaults, and was compelled to evacuate the besieged city. Leading his men through Alabama and into Tennessee, he severely damaged his army by ordering a massive frontal assault at the Battle of Franklin and was decisively defeated at the Battle of Nashville, after which he was relieved of command.

After the war, Hood moved to Louisiana and worked as a cotton broker and in the insurance business. His business was ruined by a yellow fever epidemic in New Orleans during the winter of 1878� and he succumbed to the disease himself, dying just days after his wife and oldest child, leaving ten destitute orphans.

Hood was born in Owingsville, Kentucky, the son of John W. Hood, a doctor, and Theodosia French Hood. He was a cousin of future Confederate general G. W. Smith and the nephew of U.S. Representative Richard French. French obtained an appointment for Hood at the United States Military Academy, despite his father's reluctance to support a military career for his son. Hood graduated in 1853, ranked 44th in a class of 52 that originally numbered 96, after a near-expulsion in his final year for excessive demerits (196 of a permissible 200). At West Point and in later Army years, he was known to friends as "Sam". His classmates included James B. McPherson and John M. Schofield he received instruction in artillery from George H. Thomas. These three men became Union Army generals who would oppose Hood in battle. The superintendent in 1852� was Col. Robert E. Lee, who would become Hood's commanding general in the Eastern Theater. Notwithstanding his modest record at the Academy, in 1860 Hood was appointed chief instructor of cavalry at West Point, a position that he declined, citing his desire to remain with his active field regiment and to retain all of his options in light of the impending war.

Hood was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 4th U.S. Infantry, served in California, and later transferred to the 2nd U.S. Cavalry in Texas, where he was commanded by Col. Albert Sidney Johnston and Lt. Col. Robert E. Lee. While commanding a reconnaissance patrol from Fort Mason on July 20, 1857, Hood sustained one of the many wounds that marked his lifetime in military service𠅊n arrow through his left hand during action against the Comanches at Devil's River, Texas.

Brigade and division command

Hood resigned from the United States Army immediately after Fort Sumter and, dissatisfied with the neutrality of his native Kentucky, decided to serve his adopted state of Texas. He joined the Confederate army as a cavalry captain, but by September 30, 1861, was promoted to be colonel of the 4th Texas Infantry.[12]

Hood became the brigade commander of the unit that was henceforth known as Hood's Texas Brigade on February 20, 1862, part of the Confederate Army of the Potomac, and was promoted to brigadier general on March 3, 1862. Leading the Texas brigade as part of the Army of Northern Virginia in the Peninsula Campaign, he established his reputation as an aggressive commander, eager to lead his troops personally into battle. At the Battle of Eltham's Landing, his men were instrumental in nullifying an amphibious landing by a Union division. When commanding general Joseph E. Johnston reflected upon the success Hood's men enjoyed in executing his order "to feel the enemy gently and fall back," he humorously asked, "What would your Texans have done, sir, if I had ordered them to charge and drive back the enemy?" Hood replied, "I suppose, General, they would have driven them into the river, and tried to swim out and capture the gunboats."

At the Battle of Gaines' Mill on June 27, Hood distinguished himself by leading his brigade in a charge that broke the Union line, which was the most successful Confederate performance in the Seven Days Battles. While Hood escaped the battle without an injury, every other field officer in his brigade was killed or wounded.

Because of his success on the Peninsula, Hood was given command of a division in Maj. Gen. James Longstreet's First Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia. He led the division in the Northern Virginia Campaign and added to his reputation as the premier leader of shock troops during Longstreet's massive assault on John Pope's left flank at the Second Battle of Bull Run, which nearly destroyed the Union army.

In the pursuit of Union forces, Hood was involved in a dispute over captured ambulances with a superior officer. Longstreet had Hood arrested and ordered him to leave the army, but Gen. Lee intervened and retained him in service. During the Maryland Campaign, just before the Battle of South Mountain, Hood was in the rear, still in virtual arrest. His Texas troops shouted to General Lee, "Give us Hood!" Lee restored Hood to command, despite Hood's refusal to apologize for his conduct.[16]

It could scarcely be said that any [of the officers in Longstreet's corps] . save one had by this date displayed qualities that would dispose anyone to expect a career of eminence. The exception was Hood. . Anyone who had followed the operations of the Army after Gaines' Mill would have said that of all the officers under Longstreet, the most likely to be a great soldier was Hood.

During the Battle of Antietam, Hood's division came to the relief of Stonewall Jackson's corps on the Confederate left flank, turning back an assault by the Union I Corps in the West Woods, suffering massive casualties in the defense. In the evening after the battle, Gen. Lee asked Hood where his division was. He responded, "They are lying on the field where you sent them. My division has been almost wiped out." Jackson was impressed with Hood's performance and recommended his promotion to major general, which occurred effective October 10, 1862.

In the Battle of Fredericksburg in December, Hood's division saw little action, placed in the center, between Longstreet's lines on Marye's Heights, and Jackson's lines. And in the spring of 1863, he missed the great victory of the Battle of Chancellorsville because most of Longstreet's First Corps was on detached duty in Suffolk, Virginia, involving Longstreet himself and Hood's and George Pickett's divisions.

At the Battle of Gettysburg, Longstreet's Corps arrived late on the first day, July 1, 1863. General Lee planned an assault for the second day that would feature Longstreet's Corps attacking northeast up the Emmitsburg Road into the Union left flank. Hood was dissatisfied with his assignment in the assault because it would face difficult terrain in the boulder-strewn area known as the Devil's Den. He requested permission from Longstreet to move around the left flank of the Union army, beyond the mountain known as [Big] Round Top, to strike the Union in their rear area. Longstreet refused permission, citing Lee's orders, despite repeated protests from Hood. Yielding to the inevitable, Hood's division stepped off around 4 p.m. on July 2, but a variety of factors caused it to veer to the east, away from its intended direction, where it would eventually meet with Union forces at Little Round Top. Just as the attack started, however, Hood was the victim of an artillery shell exploding overhead, severely damaging his left arm, which incapacitated him. (Although the arm was not amputated, he was unable to make use of it for the rest of his life.) His ranking brigade commander, Brig. Gen. Evander M. Law, assumed command of the division, but confusion as to orders and command status dissipated the direction and strength of the Confederate attack, significantly affecting the outcome of the battle.

Hood recuperated in Richmond, Virginia, where he made a social impression on the ladies of the Confederacy. In August 1863, famous diarist Mary Chesnut wrote of Hood:

When Hood came with his sad Quixote face, the face of an old Crusader, who believed in his cause, his cross, and his crown, we were not prepared for such a man as a beau-ideal of the wild Texans. He is tall, thin, and shy has blue eyes and light hair a tawny beard, and a vast amount of it, covering the lower part of his face, the whole appearance that of awkward strength. Some one said that his great reserve of manner he carried only into the society of ladies. Major [Charles S.] Venable added that he had often heard of the light of battle shining in a man's eyes. He had seen it once — when he carried to Hood orders from Lee, and found in the hottest of the fight that the man was transfigured. The fierce light of Hood's eyes I can never forget.

As he recuperated, Hood began a campaign to win the heart of the young, prominent South Carolina socialite, Sally Buchanan Preston, known as "Buck" to her friends, whom he had first met while traveling through Richmond in March 1863. Hood later confessed that the flirtatious Southern belle had caused him to "surrender at first sight." As he prepared to return to duty in September, Hood proposed marriage to Buck, but received only a noncommittal response.

Meanwhile, in the Western Theater, the Confederate army under General Braxton Bragg was faring poorly. Lee dispatched two divisions of Longstreet's Corps to Tennessee, and Hood was able to rejoin his men on September 18. At the Battle of Chickamauga, Hood led Longstreet's assault that exploited a gap in the Federal line, which led to the defeat of Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans's Union Army of the Cumberland. However, Hood was once again wounded severely, and his right leg was amputated four inches (100 mm) below the hip. Hood's condition was so grave that the surgeon sent the severed leg along with him in the ambulance, assuming that they would be buried together. Because of Hood's bravery at Chickamauga, Longstreet recommended that he be promoted to lieutenant general as of that date, September 20, 1863 the confirmation by the Confederate Senate occurred on February 11, 1864, as Hood was preparing to return to duty.

During Hood's second recuperation in Richmond that fall, he befriended Confederate President Jefferson Davis, who would subsequently promote him to a more important role. He also resumed his courtship of Buck Preston, who, despite giving him some ambiguously positive signals, dashed his hopes on Christmas Eve. Hood confided to Mary Chesnut that the courtship, "was the hardest battle he had ever fought in his life." In February Hood proposed again to Buck and this time demanded a specific response, which was a reluctant, embarrassed agreement. However, the Preston family did not approve of Hood, who left for the field unmarried.

Atlanta Campaign and the Army of Tennessee

In the spring of 1864, the Confederate Army of Tennessee, under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, was engaged in a campaign of maneuver against William T. Sherman, who was driving from Chattanooga toward Atlanta. Hood had accepted the position as a corps commander offered by President Davis, a somewhat controversial appointment because of the Texan's relative youth and inexperience, plus his physical disabilities. Despite his two damaged limbs, Hood performed well in the field, riding as much as 20 miles a day without apparent difficulty, strapped to his horse with his artificial leg hanging stiffly, and an orderly following closely behind with crutches. The leg, made of cork, was donated (along with a couple of spares) by members of his Texas Brigade, who had collected $3,100 in a single day for that purpose it had been imported from Europe through the Union blockade.

During the Atlanta Campaign, Hood urged the normally cautious Johnston to act aggressively, but Johnston usually reacted to flanking maneuvers by Sherman with timely withdrawals, rather similar to his strategy in the Peninsula Campaign. One attempt by Johnston to act decisively in the offensive, during the Battle of Adairsville, ironically was foiled by Hood, who had been ordered to attack the flank of one column of Sherman's army, but instead pulled back and entrenched when confronted by the unexpected arrival of a small detachment of that column.

The Army of Tennessee continued withdrawing until it had crossed the last major water barrier before Atlanta, the Chattahoochee River. During this time, Hood had been sending the government in Richmond letters very critical of Johnston's conduct, bypassing official communication channels. The issue came to a head when Gen. Braxton Bragg was ordered by President Davis to travel to Atlanta to personally interview Johnston. After meeting with Johnston, he interviewed Hood and another subordinate, Joseph Wheeler, who told him that they had repeatedly urged Johnston to attack. Hood presented a letter that branded Johnston as being both ineffective and weak-willed. He told Bragg, "I have, General, so often urged that we should force the enemy to give us battle as to almost be regarded reckless by the officers high in rank in this army [meaning Johnston and senior corps commander William J. Hardee], since their views have been so directly opposite." Johnston's biographer, Craig L. Symonds, judges that Hood's letter "stepped over the line from unprofessional to outright subversive." Steven E. Woodworth wrote that Hood was "letting his ambition get the better of his honesty" because "the truth was that Hood, more often than Hardee, had counseled Johnston to retreat."

On July 17, 1864, Jefferson Davis relieved Johnston. He considered replacing him with the more senior Hardee, but Bragg strongly recommended Hood. Bragg had not only been impressed by his interview with Hood, but he retained lingering resentments against Hardee from bitter disagreements in previous campaigns. Hood was promoted to the temporary rank of full general on July 18, and given command of the army just outside the gates of Atlanta. (Hood's temporary appointment as a full general was never confirmed by the Senate. His commission as a lieutenant general resumed on January 23, 1865.) At 33, Hood was the youngest man on either side to be given command of an army. Robert E. Lee gave an ambiguous reply to Davis's request for his opinion about the promotion, calling Hood "a bold fighter, very industrious on the battlefield, careless off," but he could not say whether Hood possessed all of the qualities necessary to command an army in the field.

Hood conducted the remainder of the Atlanta Campaign with the strong aggressive actions for which he had become famous. He launched four major attacks that summer in an attempt to break Sherman's siege of Atlanta, starting almost immediately with an attack along Peachtree Creek. All of the offensives failed, with significant Confederate casualties. Finally, on September 2, 1864, Hood evacuated the city of Atlanta, burning as many military supplies and installations as possible.

As Sherman regrouped in Atlanta, preparing for his March to the Sea, Hood and Jefferson Davis met to devise a strategy to defeat him. Their plan was to attack Sherman's lines of communications between Chattanooga and Atlanta, and to move north through Alabama and into central Tennessee, assuming that Sherman would be threatened and follow. Hood's ambitious hope was that he could maneuver Sherman into a decisive battle, defeat him, recruit additional forces in Tennessee and Kentucky, and pass through the Cumberland Gap to come to the aid of Robert E. Lee, who was besieged at Petersburg. Sherman did not cooperate, however. Instead of pursuing Hood with his army, he sent Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas to take control of the Union forces in Tennessee and coordinate the defense against Hood, while the bulk of Sherman's forces prepared to march toward Savannah.

During their conference, Davis expressed his disappointment in Hood's performance during the Atlanta Campaign, losing tens of thousands of men in ill-advised frontal assaults for no significant gains, and implied that he was considering replacing Hood in command of the army. After the president's departure for Montgomery, Alabama, he telegraphed Hood that he had decided to retain him in command and, acceding to Hood's request, transferred Hardee out of the Army of Tennessee. He also established a new theater commander to supervise Hood and the department of Lt. Gen. Richard Taylor, although the officer selected for the assignment, Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard, was not expected to exert any real operational control of the armies in the field.

Hood's Tennessee Campaign lasted from September to December 1864, comprising seven battles and hundreds of miles of marching. He attempted to trap a large part of the Union Army of the Ohio under Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield at Spring Hill, Tennessee, before it could link up with Thomas in Nashville, but command failures and misunderstandings allowed Schofield's men to safely pass by Hood's army in the night. The next day at the Battle of Franklin, Hood sent his men across nearly two miles of open ground without the support of artillery in a last gasp effort to destroy Schofield's forces before they could withdraw across the Harpeth River and reach the safety of Nashville, which was only a night's march from Franklin. His troops were unsuccessful in their attempt to breach the Union breastworks, suffering severe casualties in an assault that is sometimes called the "Pickett's Charge of the West". Hood's exhausted army was unable to interfere as the Union force withdrew into Nashville. He later wrote that "Never did troops fight more gallantly" than at Franklin. Some popular histories assert that Hood acted rashly in a fit of rage, resentful that the Federal army had slipped past his troops the night before at Spring Hill and that he wanted to discipline his army by ordering them to assault against strong odds. Recent scholarship by Eric Jacobson discounts this as unlikely, as it was not only militarily foolish, but Hood was observed to be determined, not angry, by the time he arrived in Franklin.

Unwilling to abandon his original plan, Hood stumbled toward the heavily fortified capital of Tennessee, and laid siege with inferior forces, which endured the beginning of a severe winter. Two weeks later, George Thomas attacked and defeated Hood at the Battle of Nashville. During the battle and the subsequent relentless pursuit to the south, the Army of Tennessee ceased to be an effective fighting force. Hood and the remnants of the army retreated as far as Tupelo, Mississippi. Some of the survivors eventually joined Joseph E. Johnston the Carolinas Campaign against Sherman. P.G.T. Beauregard sought permission to replace Hood with Lt. Gen. Richard Taylor and the change of command occurred January 23, 1865. In a speech to his men, Hood expressed the hope that they would give their support to Taylor and avenge their comrades "whose bones lay bleaching upon the fields of Middle Tennessee." He returned to Richmond on February 8.

In March 1865, Hood requested assignment to the Trans-Mississippi Theater to report on the situation there and to assess the possibility of moving troops across the Mississippi River to reinforce the East. He met with Richard Taylor in Mississippi in late April and agreed with Taylor's proposal that his force should surrender. He departed to take this recommendation to the commanders remaining in the field, but before he arrived in Texas, General Edmund Kirby Smith surrendered his forces, and Hood surrendered himself in Natchez, Mississippi, where he was paroled on May 31, 1865.

After the war, Hood moved to Louisiana and became a cotton broker and worked as a President of the Life Association of America, an insurance business. In 1868, he married New Orleans native Anna Marie Hennen, with whom he would father eleven children over ten years, including three pairs of twins. He also served the community in numerous philanthropic endeavors, as he assisted in fund raising for orphans, widows, and wounded soldiers. During the postwar period he wrote a memoir, Advance and Retreat: Personal Experiences in the United States and Confederate States Armies, which served to justify his actions, particularly in response to what he considered misleading or false accusations made by Joseph E. Johnston, and to unfavorable portrayals in Sherman's memoirs. His insurance business was ruined by a yellow fever epidemic in New Orleans during the winter of 1878� and he succumbed to the disease himself, dying just days after his wife and oldest child, leaving ten destitute orphans, who were adopted by families in Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, Kentucky, and New York.

John Bell Hood is buried in the Hennen family tomb at Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans. He is memorialized by Hood County, Texas, and the U.S. Army installation, Fort Hood, Texas.

Stephen Vincent Benét's poem Army of Northern Virginia included a poignant passage about Hood:

Yellow-haired Hood with his wounds and his empty sleeve, Leading his Texans, a Viking shape of a man, With the thrust and lack of craft of a berserk sword, All lion, none of the fox. When he supersedes Joe Johnston, he is lost, and his army with him, But he could lead forlorn hopes with the ghost of Ney. His bigboned Texans follow him into the mist. Who follows them?

In Bell I. Wiley's 1943 book, The Life of Johnny Reb, the Common Soldier of the Confederacy, he recounts that after the defeats in the Franklin-Nashville Campaign, Hood's troops sang with wry humor a verse about him as part of the song The Yellow Rose of Texas.

My feet are torn and bloody, My heart is full of woe, I'm going back to Georgia To find my uncle Joe [Johnston]. You may talk about your Beauregard, You may sing of Bobby Lee, But the gallant Hood of Texas He played hell in Tennessee.

In the movies Gods and Generals and Gettysburg, Hood was portrayed by actor Patrick Gorman.

The basic premise of the 1988 alternate history novel Gray Victory by Robert Skimin is that Hood's decision to leave the defenses of Atlanta and make a disastrous attack upon the Union forces had cost the South its last chance to win the war.

In the 2008 film In the Electric Mist, actor Levon Helm portrays General John Bell Hood, as a ghost who appears to detective Dave Robicheaux (played by Tommy Lee Jones).

The 2009 novel A Separate Country, by Robert Hicks, focuses on Hood's life after the Civil War.

Birth: Jun. 29, 1831 Owingsville Bath County Kentucky, USA Death: Aug. 30, 1879 New Orleans Orleans Parish Louisiana, USA

Civil War Confederate Lieutenant General. He was born John Bell Hood on June 29, 1831, the son of a rural doctor in Owingsville, Kentucky. He was raised in the bluegrass region of central Kentucky near the town of Mt. Sterling. Against the wishes of his father, who had urged him to pursue a medical career, John Bell obtained an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West point in 1849 and graduated 44th out of 52 in the class of 1853. After receiving his commission as a brevet second lieutenant in the United States Army, Hood served in the cavalry in California and Texas. After the outbreak of the Civil War, Hood resigned his commission and enlisted in the Confederate Army, receiving a commission as a lieutenant. Hood rose rapidly, and on March 7, 1862 he was promoted to Brigadier General in command of the renowned Texas Brigade. The Texas Brigade's heroics saved the Confederate left flank at Antietam in September 1862, after which Hood would be promoted to Major General. Hood was severely wounded at Gettysburg, losing use of his left arm. After recovering, Hood was assigned to the Army of Tennessee. On September 18, 1863, he rejoined his division for the Battle of Chickamauga. Hood's forces broke through the Federal battle line, which led to the rout of the Yankees. During the battle Hood received wounds that resulted in the amputation of his right leg. In September, 1863 Hood was recommended for promotion to lieutenant general for his decisive role in the Confederate victory at Chickamauga. Hood developed a close personal relationship with fellow Kentuckian President Jefferson Davis while recovering from his Chickamauga wound in Richmond during the winter of 1863-1864. Hood was offered a position as a corps commander under Johnston. On February 4, 1864 Hood arrived in Dalton, Georgia and assumed a corps command in the Army of Tennessee under Johnston. After a series of defensive battles in which Sherman prevailed, Union forces continued to march toward Atlanta, and the Confederate government and high command grew more frustrated and alarmed. President Davis ultimately determined that Hood should replace Johnston as commander of the Army of Tennessee. Hood wasted no time in launching the first of four major offensives designed to break Sherman's siege of Atlanta. However, the disjointed attacks by separate Confederate corps' were ineffective and resulted in a decisive Union victory. Hoping to save his army, Hood evacuated Atlanta on September 2, 1864. Hood would continue to harass Sherman's supply and communications lines, but could do nothing to stop the infamous “march to the sea.” Hood then launched his ill-fated invasion of Tennessee, suffering decisive defeats at Franklin on Nov. 30 and at Nashville on Dec. 16. Retreating with the shattered remnants of the Army of Tennessee into northern Mississippi, Hood resigned his command on January 23, 1865. During the waning days of the Confederacy, Hood was ordered by Jefferson Davis to travel to Texas and attempt to raise an army. However, after learning of Lee’s surrender and the capture of Davis, Hood surrendered to Federal authorities in Natchez, Mississippi on May 31, 1865. After the war Hood prospered for a time in the cotton brokerage and insurance businesses in New Orleans. He married a local woman and fathered eleven children over the next 10 years, including three sets of twins. Hood’s modest fortune was wiped out during the winter of 1878-1879 by a yellow fever epidemic that closed the New Orleans Cotton Exchange and bankrupted the local insurance industry. Later that year, on August 30, 1879, John Bell Hood died of yellow fever within days of his wife and oldest child. His ten orphaned children, all under the age of ten, were left destitute. They would ultimately be adopted by seven different families in Louisiana, New York, Mississippi, Georgia and Kentucky. (bio by: Edward Parsons)

Burial: Metairie Cemetery New Orleans Orleans Parish Louisiana, USA GPS (lat/lon): 29.98244, -90.12022

Maintained by: Find A Grave Record added: Feb 01, 1999 Find A Grave Memorial# 4418


Vida posterior

In the final days of the war, Hood was dispatched to Texas by Davis with the goal of raising a new army. Learning of Davis' capture and the surrender of Texas, Hood surrendered to Union forces at Natchez, MS on May 31. After the war, Hood settled in New Orleans where he worked in insurance and as a cotton broker.

Marrying, he fathered eleven children before his death from yellow fever on August 30, 1879. A gifted brigade and division commander, Hood's performance dropped as he was promoted to higher commands. Though renowned for his early successes and ferocious attacks, his failures around Atlanta and in Tennessee permanently damaged his reputation as a commander.


Assista o vídeo: Jon B - Are You Still Down feat. 2Pac.wmv