Townshend Acts

Townshend Acts


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Townshend Acts

Charles Townshend propôs uma série de atos conhecidos como Townshend Acts para aumentar a receita das colônias britânicas. A Inglaterra tinha uma grande dívida após a Guerra dos Sete Anos e acreditava que os colonos deveriam pagar sua parte justa da dívida, uma vez que se beneficiaram da força militar britânica. Os atos incluídos nestes atos são:

  • Revenue Act de 1767
  • Lei de Indenização
  • Commissioners of Customs Act
  • Lei do vice-almirantado
  • Lei de Restrição de Nova York.

Por meio desses atos, a Grã-Bretanha acreditava que mostraria aos colonos o poder que tinha. A Grã-Bretanha acreditava que havia o direito de cobrar impostos sobre as colônias e que as colônias deveriam obedecer. Infelizmente esses atos não foram cumpridos e os colonos se rebelaram contra eles. A Grã-Bretanha despachou regulares britânicos para manter a paz em Boston, no entanto, eles se tornaram o próprio gatilho para a rebelião. A própria presença de soldados britânicos acendeu a raiva dentro das colônias e acabou levando ao Massacre de Boston.

A maioria das Leis de Townshend foi revogada no mesmo dia do Massacre de Boston. Todos, exceto o imposto sobre o chá, que acabaria por levar ao Boston Tea Party e a comissão de Thomas Gage a Boston. Esses atos, junto com a Lei do Açúcar de 1764 e a Lei do Selo de 1765, levariam à Batalha de Lexington e Concord em 1775 e à Revolução Americana.


A declaração de independência

Impostos sobre vidro, tinta, óleo, chumbo, papel e chá foram aplicados com o objetivo de arrecadar & # 16340.000 por ano para a administração das colônias. O resultado foi a ressurreição das hostilidades coloniais criadas pela Lei do Selo.

A reação assumiu proporções revolucionárias em Boston, no verão de 1768, quando funcionários da alfândega apreenderam um saveiro de propriedade de John Hancock, por violações dos regulamentos comerciais. Multidões aglomeraram-se na alfândega, forçando os funcionários a se retirarem para um navio de guerra britânico no porto. Tropas da Inglaterra e da Nova Escócia marcharam para ocupar Boston em 1º de outubro de 1768. Os bostonianos não ofereceram resistência. Em vez disso, eles mudaram suas táticas. Eles estabeleceram acordos de não importação que rapidamente se espalharam pelas colônias. O comércio britânico logo secou e os poderosos mercadores da Grã-Bretanha mais uma vez intercederam em nome das colônias.

A LEI DE RECEITAS DE TOWNSHEND

ATO para a concessão de certos direitos nas colônias e plantações britânicas na América por permitir um draubaque dos direitos aduaneiros sobre a exportação deste reino, de café e cacau da produção das referidas colônias ou plantações para descontinuar os reembolsos a pagar em louça de barro da China exportada para a América e para mais eficazmente prevenir o escoamento clandestino de mercadorias nas ditas colônias e plantações.

CONSIDERANDO que é conveniente que uma receita seja levantada, nos domínios de Vossa Majestade na América, para fazer uma provisão mais certa e adequada para custear a administração da justiça e o apoio do governo civil, em tais províncias como deve ser considerou necessário e no sentido de custear ainda mais as despesas de defesa, proteção e segurança dos ditos domínios. seja ele promulgado. Que a partir do vigésimo dia de novembro de mil setecentos e sessenta e sete, será levantado, cobrado, recolhido e pago, a sua Majestade, seus herdeiros e sucessores, por sobre e os respectivos Bens aqui depois mencionados , que deve ser importado da Grã-Bretanha para qualquer colônia ou plantação na América que agora está ou no futuro pode estar, sob o domínio de sua Majestade, seus herdeiros ou sucessores, as várias Taxas e Deveres seguintes, ou seja,

Para cada avoirdupois de cem quilos de coroa, placa, sílex e vidro branco, quatro xelins e oito pence.

Para cada cem pesos avoirdupois de chumbo vermelho, dois xelins.

Para cada cem pesos avoirdupois de vidro verde, um xelim e dois pence.

Para cada cem pesos avoirdupois de chumbo branco, dois xelins.

Para cada cem pesos avoirdupois de cores de pintores, dois xelins.

Para cada libra de peso avoirdupois de chá, três pence.

Para cada resma de papel, geralmente chamada ou conhecida pelo nome de Atlas, multa, doze xelins. .

. e que todas as quantias que surgirem pelas referidas taxas (exceto as taxas necessárias de aumento, cobrança, cobrança, recuperação, resposta, pagamento e contabilização das mesmas) serão aplicadas, em primeiro lugar, da maneira como são a seguir mencionado, em fazer uma provisão mais certa e adequada para o encargo da administração da justiça e o apoio do governo civil em tais colônias e plantações onde for considerado necessário e que o resíduo de tais deveres será pago no recibo do tesouro de sua Majestade, e deve ser lançado separadamente e à parte de todas as outras quantias pagas ou pagáveis ​​a Sua Majestade. e lá estarão reservados, para serem de tempos em tempos dispostos pelo parlamento no sentido de custear as despesas necessárias de defesa, proteção e segurança das colônias e plantações britânicas na América.

E que seja promulgado. Que sua Majestade e seus sucessores devem ser, e são por meio deste, imputados, de tempos em tempos, por qualquer mandado ou mandados sob seu manual de sinalização real ou manuais de sinalização, assinados pelo alto tesoureiro, ou quaisquer três ou mais dos comissários da tesouraria, por enquanto, para fazer com que esse dinheiro seja aplicado, com o produto dos direitos conferidos por este ato, como Sua Majestade, ou seus sucessores, julgarem apropriado ou necessário, para custear os encargos da administração de justiça, e o apoio do governo civil, dentro de todas ou qualquer uma das ditas colônias ou plantações.

E considerando que por um ato do parlamento feito no décimo quarto ano do reinado do rei Carlos II, intitulado, Um ato para prevenir fraudes e regulamentar abusos, nos costumes de Sua Majestade, e vários outros atos agora em vigor, é lícito para qualquer oficial da alfândega de sua Majestade, autorizado por mandado de assistência sob o selo da corte do tesouro de sua Majestade, a levar um condestável, headborough ou outro oficial público que more perto do local, e durante o dia para entrar e entrar em qualquer casa , adega, armazém ou sala ou outro local e, em caso de resistência, arrombar portas, baús, baús e outros pacotes, apreender e de lá trazer qualquer tipo de mercadoria ou mercadoria proibida ou desacostumada, e colocar e garantir o mesmo no armazém de Sua Majestade próximo ao local onde tal apreensão será feita e enquanto por um ato feito no sétimo e oitavo anos do reinado do Rei Guilherme III, intitulado Um ato para prevenir frau ds, e regulamentar os abusos, no comércio de plantação, é, entre outras coisas, decretado, que os oficiais para coletar e administrar a receita de Sua Majestade, e inspecionar o comércio de plantação, na América, devem ter os mesmos poderes e autoridades para entrar nas casas ou armazéns, para buscar ou apreender mercadorias proibidas de serem importadas ou exportadas para dentro ou fora de qualquer uma das ditas plantações, ou para as quais quaisquer direitos são devidos, ou deveriam ter sido pagos e que a mesma assistência deve ser prestada aos referidos oficiais em a execução de seu cargo, como, pelo referido ato recitado do décimo quarto ano do rei Carlos II, é fornecida para os oficiais da Inglaterra: mas, nenhuma autoridade sendo expressamente dada pelo referido ato, feito no sétimo e oitavo anos do reinado do Rei Guilherme III, a qualquer tribunal particular que conceda tais mandados de assistência aos oficiais da alfândega nas ditas plantações, duvida-se que tais oficiais possam legalmente entrar nas casas e outros locais em terra, para procurar e apreender bens, na forma prescrita pelos ditos atos recitados: Para afastar quais dúvidas para o futuro, e a fim de levar a intenção dos ditos atos recitados em execução efetiva, seja ela promulgada. Que a partir do referido vigésimo dia de novembro, mil setecentos e sessenta e sete, tais mandados de assistência, para autorizar e capacitar os oficiais da alfândega de Sua Majestade a entrar e entrar em qualquer casa, armazém, loja, adega ou outro lugar, nas colônias britânicas ou plantações na América, para pesquisar e apreender bens proibidos e não habituais, na forma dirigida pelos referidos atos recitados, devem e podem ser concedidos pelo referido tribunal superior ou supremo de justiça com jurisdição dentro de tal colônia ou plantação, respectivamente.


Atos de Townshend - HISTÓRIA

Ato de concessão de determinados direitos nas colônias e plantações britânicas na América, por permitir o draubaque dos direitos aduaneiros sobre a exportação, deste reino, de café e cacau da produção das referidas colônias ou plantações, por descontinuidade das devoluções a pagar. na porcelana, porcelana de barro exportada para a América e para evitar com mais eficácia o escoamento clandestino de mercadorias nas colônias e plantações.

CONSIDERANDO que é conveniente que uma receita seja levantada nos domínios de Vossa Majestade na América, para fazer uma provisão mais certa e adequada para custear a administração da justiça e o apoio do governo civil, nas províncias onde ela for encontrada necessário e para custear ainda mais as despesas de defesa, proteção e garantia dos referidos domínios, nós, os súditos mais zelosos e leais de Vossa Majestade, os comuns da Grã-Bretanha, no parlamento reunido, resolvemos, portanto, dar e conceder a Vossa Majestade os vários taxas e deveres aqui mencionados e rogam humildemente a Vossa Majestade que possa ser promulgada, e seja promulgada pela mais excelente majestade do Rei, por e com o conselho dos senhores espirituais e temporais, e comuns, neste presente parlamento reunido , e pela autoridade do mesmo, Que a partir de e após o dia vinte de novembro, mil setecentos e sessenta e sete, será levantado, cobrado, recolhido e pago, a sua Majestade, seus herdeiros e sucessores, e sobre os respectivos bens aqui mencionados, que serão importados da Grã-Bretanha para qualquer colônia ou plantação na América que agora é, ou poderá vir a ser, sob o domínio de sua Majestade, seus herdeiros ou sucessores, as diversas taxas e deveres decorrentes, ou seja,

Para cada cem pesos avoirdupois de coroa, placa, sílex e vidro branco, quatro xelins e oito pence.

Para cada cem pesos avoirdupois de vidro verde, um xelim e dois pence.

Para cada cem pesos avoirdupois de chumbo vermelho, dois xelins.

Para cada cem pesos avoirdupois de chumbo branco, dois xelins.

Para cada cem pesos avoirdupois de cores de pintores, dois xelins.

Para cada libra de peso avoirdupois de chá, três pence.

Para cada resma de papel, geralmente chamada ou conhecida pelo nome de Atlas Fine, doze xelins.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Atlas Ordinary, seis xelins.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Bastardo, ou Cópia Dupla, um xelim e seis pence.

Para cada resma de papel azul para padeiros de açúcar, dez pence e meio penny

Para cada resma de papel chamada Blue Royal, um xelim e seis pence.

Para cada maço de papel pardo contendo quarenta cadernos, não feitos na Grã-Bretanha, seis pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Brown Cap, não fabricada na Grã-Bretanha, nove pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Brown Large Cap, feita na Grã-Bretanha, quatro pence e meio penny.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Small Ordinary Brown, feita na Grã-Bretanha, três pence.

Para cada maço, contendo quarenta cartas de papel chamado Whited Brown, feito na Grã-Bretanha, quatro pence e meio penny.

Para cada resma de papel do cartucho, um xelim e um centavo e meio penny.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Chancery Double, um xelim e seis pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Genoa Crown Fine, em um xelim e um centavo e meio penny.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Genoa Crown Second, nove pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Coroa Alemã, nove pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Fine Printing Crown, nove pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Segunda Coroa de Impressão Ordinária, seis pence três farthings.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Crown Fine, feita na Grã-Bretanha, nove pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Crown Second, feita na Grã-Bretanha, seis pence e três farthings.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Demy Fine, não feita na Grã-Bretanha, três xelins.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Demy Second, não feita na Grã-Bretanha, um xelim e

Para cada resma de papel chamada Demy Fine, feita na Grã-Bretanha, um xelim e um centavo e meio penny.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Demy Second, feita na Grã-Bretanha, nove pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Demy Printing, um shilling e três pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Genoa Demy Fine, um xelim e seis pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Genoa Demy Second, um xelim e um centavo e meio penny.

Para cada resma de papel chamada German Demy, um xelim e um centavo e meio penny.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Elephant Fine, seis xelins.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Elefante Comum, dois xelins e cinco pence farthing.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Genoa Fools Cap Fine, um xelim e um centavo e meio penny.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Genoa Fools Cap Second, nove pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada German Fools Cap, nove pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Fine Printing Fools Cap, nove pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Segundo chapéu de tolos de impressão comum, seis centavos e três centavos.

Para cada resma de qualquer outro jornal chamado Fools Cap Fine, não feito na Grã-Bretanha, um xelim e dez pence meio penny.

Para cada resma de qualquer outro jornal chamado Fools Cap Fine Second, não feito na Grã-Bretanha, um xelim e seis pence.

Para cada resma de papel Fools Cap Fine, feito na Grã-Bretanha, nove pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Fools Cap Second, feita na Grã-Bretanha, seis pence e três farthings.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Imperial Fine, doze xelins.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Second Writing Imperial, oito xelins e três pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada German Lombard, nove pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Medium Fine, quatro xelins e seis pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Genoa Medium, um xelim e dez pence e meio penny.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Segundo meio de escrita, três xelins.

Para cada resma de papel pintado, não feito na Grã-Bretanha, seis xelins.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Fine Large Post, um xelim e dez pence e meio penny.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Small Post, um xelim e um centavo e meio-penny.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Fine Genoa Pot, seis centavos e três centavos.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Segundo pote de Gênova, seis centavos e três centavos.

Para cada resma de outro papel chamado Superfine Pot, não feito na Grã-Bretanha, um xelim e seis pence.

Para cada resma de outro jornal chamado Second Fine Pot, não feito na Grã-Bretanha, um xelim e um centavo e meio.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Ordinary Pot, não feita na Grã-Bretanha, seis pence e três farthings.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Fine Pot, feita na Grã-Bretanha, nove pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Second Pot, feita na Grã-Bretanha, quatro pence e meio penny.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Super Royal Fine, nove xelins.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Royal Fine, seis xelins.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Fine Holland Royal, dois xelins e cinco pence farthing.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Fine Holland Second, um xelim e seis pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Second Fine Holland Royal, um xelim e seis pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Ordinary Royal, nove pence.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Genoa Royal, dois xelins e cinco pence farthing.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Second Writing Royal, quatro xelins e um centavo e meio-penny.

Para cada resma de papel chamada Second Writing Super Royal, seis xelins.

Para cada cem pesos avoirdupois de papelão, chapas de moinho e balanças, não feitos na Grã-Bretanha, três xelins e nove pence.

Para cada cem pesos avoirdupois de placas de papelão, tábuas de moinho e tábuas de balança, feitas na Grã-Bretanha, dois xelins e três pence.

E para e sobre todo o papel que será impresso, pintado ou manchado, na Grã-Bretanha, para servir para enforcamentos ou outros usos, três farthings para cada metro quadrado, além das taxas devidas por tal papel por este ato, se o as mesmas não foram impressas, pintadas ou manchadas e após essas taxas respectivamente para qualquer quantidade maior ou menor.

II. E é ainda decretado pela autoridade acima mencionada, Que todos os outros papéis (não sendo particularmente avaliados e cobrados neste ato) deverão pagar as diversas e respectivas obrigações que são cobradas por este ato, em papel que seja o mais próximo acima em tamanho e bondade para esse papel não classificado.

III. E seja declarado e promulgado pela autoridade acima mencionada, Que uma resma de papel, exigível por este ato, deve ser entendida como consistindo de vinte cadernos, e cada maço de vinte e quatro folhas.

4. E é ainda decretado pela autoridade acima mencionada, que as referidas taxas e direitos, cobrados por este ato sobre bens importados para qualquer colônia ou plantação britânica americana, serão considerados, e declarados como sendo, dinheiro esterlino da Grã-Bretanha e devem ser coletados, recuperados e pagos ao montante do valor que tais somas nominais representam na Grã-Bretanha e que tais quantias podem ser recebidas e tomadas, de acordo com a proporção e o valor de cinco xelins e seis pence a onça em prata e devem ser levantado, cobrado, recolhido, pago e recuperado, da mesma maneira e forma, e por tais regras, formas e meios, e sob tais penalidades e confiscos, como quaisquer outros direitos, agora pagáveis ​​a Sua Majestade sobre bens importados para as ditas colônias ou plantações podem ser levantadas, arrecadadas, recolhidas, pagas e recuperadas, por qualquer ato ou atos do parlamento agora em vigor, tão plena e eficazmente, para todos os efeitos e propósitos, como se as várias cláusulas, poderes, orientações , penal vínculos e confiscos relativos a eles foram particularmente repetidos, e novamente promulgados, no corpo deste presente ato: e que todas as quantias que surgirem pelos referidos direitos (exceto os encargos necessários de aumento, cobrança, cobrança, recuperação, responder, pagar e prestar contas do mesmo) aplicar-se-ão, em primeiro lugar, da forma a seguir mencionada, para fazer uma provisão mais certa e adequada para o encargo da administração da justiça e o apoio da sociedade civil governo, em tais colônias e plantações onde for considerado necessário e que o resíduo de tais direitos será pago no recibo do tesouro de Sua Majestade, e será lançado separadamente e à parte de todas as outras quantias pagas ou pagáveis ​​a seu Majestade, seus herdeiros ou sucessores e estarão lá reservados, para serem, de tempos em tempos, dispostos pelo parlamento no sentido de custear as despesas necessárias de defesa, proteção e segurança das colônias britânicas e plantações na América.

V. E que seja promulgado pela autoridade acima mencionada, Que sua Majestade e seus sucessores serão, e por meio deste, imputados, de tempos em tempos, por qualquer mandado ou mandados sob seu manual de sinais reais ou manuais de sinais, rubricados por o alto tesoureiro, ou quaisquer três ou mais dos comissários da tesouraria por enquanto, para fazer com que tais verbas sejam aplicadas, a partir do produto dos deveres concedidos por este ato, como sua Majestade ou seus sucessores pensarão próprios ou necessários, para custear as custas da administração da justiça, e o apoio do governo civil, em todas ou qualquer uma das ditas colônias ou plantações.

VI. E considerando que permitir a redução de todos os direitos aduaneiros sobre a exportação, deste reino, de café e cacau, o crescimento dos domínios britânicos na América, pode ser um meio de estimular o crescimento do café e do cacau no referido domínios sejam, portanto, decretados pela autoridade acima mencionada, Que a partir de e após o referido vigésimo dia de novembro de mil setecentos e sessenta e sete, sobre a exportação de qualquer café ou cacau, do crescimento ou produto de qualquer colônia ou plantação britânica na América, deste reino como mercadoria, todos os direitos alfandegários, pagáveis ​​sobre a importação de tais nozes de café ou cacau, serão retirados e reembolsados ​​de tal maneira, e sob tais regras, regulamentos, penalidades e confiscos, como qualquer draubaque ou subsídio, a pagar fora dos direitos aduaneiros sobre a exportação de tal café ou cacau, era, poderia ou poderia ser pago, antes da aprovação deste ato, qualquer lei, costume ou uso, em contrário, não obstante tanding.

VII. E é ainda decretado pela autoridade acima mencionada, que nenhuma desvantagem será permitida para qualquer porcelana de barro vendida, após a aprovação deste ato, na venda da companhia unida de mercadores da Inglaterra que negociam com as Índias Orientais, que deve ser inscrito para exportação da Grã-Bretanha para qualquer parte da América, independentemente da lei, costume ou uso em contrário.

VIII. E é ainda decretado pela autoridade acima mencionada, que se qualquer porcelana de barro vendida, após a aprovação deste ato, na venda da referida empresa unida, será inscrita para exportação para qualquer parte da América como porcelana de barro que tinha sido vendido na venda da referida empresa antes dessa época ou, se qualquer porcelana forrada a ser exportada para qualquer parte além do mar, exceto para alguma parte da América, a fim de obter qualquer inconveniente, e o a referida porcelana de barro deve, no entanto, ser transportada para qualquer parte da América e desembarcada ali contrária à verdadeira intenção e significado deste ato que então, em cada um desses casos, o reembolso será confiscado e o comerciante ou outra pessoa que o fizer entrada, e o capitão ou pessoa que assumir o comando do navio ou navio a bordo do qual as referidas mercadorias serão carregadas para exportação, perderá o dobro do valor do draubaque pago ou a pagar pelo mesmo, e também triplicará o valor dos referidos bens, uma metade para e para o uso de sua Majestade, seus herdeiros e sucessores e a outra metade para o oficial da alfândega que processe para que os mesmos sejam processados, processados ​​e recuperados, de tal maneira e forma, e pelas mesmas regras e regulamentos, como outras penas infligidas por ofensas contra qualquer lei relativa aos costumes podem ser processados, processados ​​e recuperados, por qualquer ato ou atos do parlamento agora em vigor.

IX. E para a prevenção mais eficaz da circulação clandestina de mercadorias nos domínios britânicos na América, seja promulgada pela autoridade acima mencionada, Que a partir de e após o referido vigésimo dia de novembro, mil setecentos e sessenta e sete, o mestre ou outro pessoa que tem ou assume o comando ou comando de cada navio ou navio que chega em qualquer colônia ou plantação britânica na América deve, antes de prosseguir com seu navio para o local de descamação, vir diretamente para a alfândega do porto ou distrito onde chega , e fazer uma entrada justa e verdadeira, sob juramento, perante o coletor e controlador, ou outro oficial principal da alfândega, da carga, conteúdo e embarque de tal navio ou navio, com as marcas, números, qualidades particulares, e o conteúdo, de cada pacote de mercadorias nele carregado, o melhor de seu conhecimento também onde e em que porto ela tomou em seu embarque de que país construiu como tripulado quem era o mestre durante a viagem, e quem são seus proprietários e se algum, e quais mercadorias, durante o curso de tal viagem, foram ou não descarregadas de tal navio ou navio, e onde: e o capitão ou outra pessoa tendo ou assumindo o comando ou comando de cada navio ou navio, saindo de qualquer colônia ou plantação britânica na América, antes de receber, ou permitir que seja levado ou carregado a bordo de qualquer navio ou navio, quaisquer mercadorias, mercadorias ou mercadorias a serem exportadas, deverão, em da mesma maneira, entrar e relatar o exterior de tal navio ou navio, com seu nome e carga, de que país construído, e como tripulado, com os nomes do mestre e seus proprietários, e para qual porto ou lugar ele pretende passar ou navegar: e antes de partir com tal navio ou navio para fora de qualquer colônia ou plantação, ele também deve trazer e entregar ao coletor e controlador, ou outro oficial principal da alfândega no porto ou local onde ele deve transportar, um conteúdo em escrevendo, sob sua mão, o nome de cada comerciante , ou outra pessoa que tenha carregado, ou colocado a bordo de qualquer desses navios ou embarcações, quaisquer mercadorias ou mercadorias, juntamente com as marcas e números de tais mercadorias ou mercadorias: e tal mestre ou pessoa tendo ou assumindo o comando ou comando de cada tal navio ou navio, entrando ou saindo de qualquer colônia ou plantação britânica, conforme mencionado acima, se tal navio ou navio deve estar carregado ou em lastro, ou de outra forma, deve da mesma forma publicamente, na alfândega aberta, da melhor forma de seu conhecimento, responder sob juramento às perguntas que forem exigidas dele pelo coletor e controlador, ou outro oficial principal da alfândega de tal porto ou lugar, a respeito de tal navio ou navio, e o destino de sua viagem, ou a respeito quaisquer bens ou mercadorias que devem ou podem ser carregados a bordo dela, após o confisco de cem libras esterlinas em dinheiro da Grã-Bretanha, para cada inadimplência ou negligência a ser processada, processada, recuperada e dividida, da mesma maneira eforma, pelas mesmas regras e regulamentos em todos os aspectos, como outras penalidades pecuniárias, por ofensas contra as leis relativas aos costumes ou comércio das colônias de sua Majestade na América, pode, por qualquer ato ou atos do parlamento agora em vigor, ser processado , processado, recuperado e dividido.

X. E considerando que por um ato do parlamento feito no décimo quarto ano do reinado do Rei Carlos II, intitulado, Um ato para prevenir fraudes e regulamentar abusos, nos costumes de Sua Majestade, e vários outros atos agora em vigor, é lícito para qualquer oficial dos costumes de sua majestade, autorizado por mandado de assistência sob o selo da corte ou do tesouro de sua majestade, para levar um condestável, headborough ou outro oficial público que habite próximo ao local, e durante o dia para entrar e entrar em qualquer casa, loja, adega, armazém ou cômodo ou outro lugar e, em caso de resistência, quebrar portas, baús, baús e outros pacotes ali, para apreender e de lá trazer qualquer tipo de bens ou mercadorias proibidas ou desacostumadas, e colocá-las e protegê-las no armazém de sua Majestade, próximo ao local onde a apreensão será feita: e considerando que por um ato feito no sétimo e oitavo anos do reinado do rei Guilherme o terceiro, intitulado, Um ato para evitando fraudes e regulamentando abusos, no comércio de plantações, é, entre outras coisas, decretado que os oficiais para coletar e administrar as receitas de sua Majestade e inspecionar o comércio de plantações, na América, terão os mesmos poderes e autoridades para entrar casas ou armazéns, para procurar e apreender mercadorias proibidas de serem importadas ou exportadas para dentro ou fora de qualquer uma das ditas plantações, ou para as quais quaisquer direitos são devidos, ou deveriam ter sido pagos e que a mesma assistência deve ser prestada ao ditos oficiais na execução de seus cargos, como, pelo dito ato recitado do décimo quarto ano do rei Carlos II, é fornecido para os oficiais na Inglaterra: mas, nenhuma autoridade sendo expressamente dada pelo dito ato, feito no sétimo e oitavo anos do reinado do Rei Guilherme III, a qualquer tribunal particular para conceder tais mandados de assistência aos oficiais da alfândega nas ditas plantações, duvida-se que tais oficiais possam legalmente entrar em casa es e outros lugares em terra, para busca e apreensão de bens, na forma dirigida pelos ditos atos recitados: Para esclarecer quais dúvidas para o futuro, e a fim de levar a intenção dos ditos atos recitados em execução efetiva, seja promulgada, e é promulgada pela autoridade acima mencionada, Que a partir de e após o referido vigésimo dia de novembro, mil setecentos e sessenta e sete, tais mandados de assistência, para autorizar e habilitar o oficial da alfândega de sua Majestade a entrar e sair em qualquer casa, armazém, loja, adega ou outro lugar, nas colônias britânicas de plantações da América, para procurar e apreender bens proibidos ou não usados, na forma dirigida pelos referidos atos recitados, devem e podem ser concedidos pelo os referidos tribunais superiores ou supremos de justiça com jurisdição dentro de tal colônia ou plantação, respectivamente.

XI. E seja ainda decretado pela autoridade acima mencionada, Que se qualquer ação ou processo for iniciado na Grã-Bretanha ou na América, contra qualquer pessoa ou pessoas por qualquer coisa feita em cumprimento deste ato, o réu ou réus em tal ação ou processo pode pleitear a questão geral e dar este ato, e o assunto especial, como prova em qualquer julgamento a ser realizado e que o mesmo foi feito em conformidade e pela autoridade deste ato: e se assim parecer que foi feito, o júri decidirá pelo réu ou réus: e se o querelante não for adequado, ou interromper sua ação após o réu ou réus terem aparecido, ou se o julgamento for dado sobre qualquer veredicto ou objeção contra o querelante, o réu ou os réus devem recuperar os custos do triplo e ter o mesmo recurso para o mesmo que os réus têm em outros casos por lei.

Um ato para descontinuar os direitos sobre a madeira em tora exportada para retirar os direitos sobre o Succus Liquoritiae importado e para conceder outros direitos em seu lugar para explicar as partes de dois atos feitos no décimo e décimo segundo anos do reinado da Rainha Anne, conforme relacionado a certos direitos sobre sedas, impressos, pintados ou manchados, na Grã-Bretanha para conceder um imposto sobre a exportação de arroz que deve ter sido importado com isenção de direitos, em conformidade com um ato feito nesta sessão do parlamento: e para mais efetivamente evitando o desgaste de rendas estrangeiras e agulhas que são proibidas de serem importadas para este reino,

CONSIDERANDO QUE a descontinuidade do imposto devido sobre a exportação de madeira em tora deste reino pode ser um meio de encorajar a importação da mesma. advice and consent of the lords spiritual and temporal, and commons, in this present parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, That from and after the twentieth day of July, one thousand seven and sixty seven, the duty now payable upon logwood , exported from this kingdom to any parts beyond the seas, shall cease, determine, and be no longer paid or payable any law, custom or usage, to the contrary notwithstanding.

II. Provided always, and it is hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That due entries shall be made at the custom-house of all such logwood, upon which the duty is taken off by this act and such logwood shall be shipped outwards in the presence of the proper officers of the customs appointed for that purpose and the exportation thereof shall be in British built ships or vessels, navigated according to law and the said logwood shall be liable to the same duty as if this act had never been made any thing herein before contained to the contrary notwithstanding.

III. And whereas Succus Liquoritiae is rated in the book of rates made in the twelfth year of the reign of King Charles the Second, at one shilling per pound weight according to which value, the duties now payable upon Succus Liquoritiae, imported into this kingdom, amount to seven pounds, two shillings, and six pence, for every hundred weight thereof: and whereas it has been found, by experience, that the said duties are too high which has induced many persons to import clandestinely great quantities of such Succus Liquoritiae, to the prejudice of the revenue and the fair trader: For remedy whereof, be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the twentieth day of July, one thousand seven hundred and sixty seven, the several duties payable upon the importation of Succus Liquoritiae shall cease, determine, and be no longer paid and in lieu thereof, there shall be paid and payable to his Majesty, his heirs, and successors, for every hundred weight avoirdupois of Succus Liquo ritiae, which from and after the said twentieth day of July, one thousand seven hundred and sixty seven, shall be imported into Great Britain, the sum of thirty shillings.

4. And it is hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the said duty by this act granted shall be paid down in ready money, without any discount or allowance and shall not be afterwards drawn back or repaid upon the exportation of the same goods and shall be raised, levied, collected, and paid, in the same manner and form, and by such rules, ways, and means, and under such penalties and forfeitures, as the duties upon Succus Liquoritiae hereby determined, or any of them, might have been raised, levied, recovered, and paid, if the same, or any of them, had continued.

V. And it is hereby enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the duties to arise upon the importation of Succus Liquoritiae pursuant to this act (the necessary charges of management excepted) shall be appropriated and applied, as near as may be, to the same uses and purposes as the present duties upon drugs, rated by the book of rates made in the twelfth year of the reign of King Charles the Second, are applicable, or ought to be applied.

VI. And whereas by an act passed in the tenth year of the reign of her late majesty Queen Anne, intituled, An act for laying several duties upon all sope and paper made in Great Britain, or imported into the same and upon chequered and striped linen imported and upon certain silks, callicoes, linens, and stuffs, printed, painted, or stained and upon several kinds of stampt vellum, parchment, and paper, and upon certain printed papers, pamphlets, and advertisements for raising the sum of one million eight hundred thousand pounds, by way of a lottery, towards her MajestyÂ’s supply and for licensing an additional number of hackney chairs and for charging certain stocks of cards and dice and for better securing her MajestyÂ’s duties to arise in the office of stamp duties by licences for marriages, and otherwise and for relief of persons who have not claimed their lottery tickets in due time, or have lost exchequer bills or lottery tickets and for borrowing money upon stock (part of the capital of the South Sea company) for the use of the public it is, amongst other things, enacted, that there should be raised, levied, collected, and paid, to and for the use of her Majesty her heirs, and successors, for and upon all silks, calicoes, linens, and stuffs, of what kind soever, which, at any time or times, within or during the term of thirty two years, to be reckoned from the twentieth day of July, one thousand seven hundred and twelve, should be printed, stained, painted, or dyed, in Great Britain (such calicoes, linens, and fustians, as should be dyed throughout of one colour only and stuffs made of woollen, or whereof the greatest part in value should be woollen always excepted) the several and respective rates and duties herein after expressed (over and above the duties payable upon the importation of them, or any of them) that is to say,

For and upon all silks so printed, stained, or painted, in Great Britain (silk handkerchiefs excepted) the sum of six pence for every yard in length, reckoning half a yard for the breadth.

And for all silk handkerchiefs so printed, stained, or painted, in Great Britain, the sum of three pence for every yard square and in those proportions for wider or narrower silks.

And whereas by an act passed in the third year of the reign of his late majesty King George the First, intituled, And act for redeeming the duties and revenues which were settled to pay off principal and interest on the orders made forth at four lottery acts passed in the ninth and tenth years of her late MajestyÂ’s reign and for redeeming certain annuities payable on orders out of the hereditary excise, according to a former act in that behalf and for establishing a general yearly fund, not only for the future payment of annuities at several rates, to be payable and transferrable at the bank of England, and redeemable by parliament, but also to raise monies for such proprietors of the said orders as shall choose to be paid their principal and arrears of interest in ready money and for making good such other deficiencies and payments as in this act are mentioned and for taking off the duties on linseed imported, and British linen exported the said several rates and duties are made perpetual: And whereas by an act of parliament made in the twelfth year of the reign of her said late majesty Queen Anne, intituled, An act for laying additional duties on sope and paper and upon certain linens, silks, callicoes, and stuffs and upon starch, and exported coals and upon stampt vellum, parchment, and paper, for raising one million four hundred thousand pounds, by way of a lottery, for her MajestyÂ’s supply and for allowances on exporting made wares of leather, sheep skins, and lamb skins and for distribution of four thousand pounds due to the officers and seamen for gun money and to adjust the property of tickets in former lotteries and touching certain shares of stock in the capital of the South Sea company and for appropriating the monies granted to her Majesty it is, amongst other things, enacted, That there should be raised, levied, collected, and paid, to and for the use of her Majesty, her heirs, and successors, for and upon all silks, callicoes, linens, and stuffs, of what kind soever, which, at any time or times within or during the term of thirty two years, to be reckoned from the second day of August, one thousand seven hundred and fourteen, should be printed, stained, painted, or dyed, in Great Britain (such callicoes, linens, and fustians, as shall be dyed throughout of one colour only and stuffs made of woollen, or whereof the greatest parts in value shall be woollen always excepted) the several and respective rates and duties therein and herein after expressed (over and above all other duties payable for the same, or any of them) that is to say,

For and upon all silks so printed, stained, or painted, within or during the term aforesaid, in Great Britain (silk handkerchiefs excepted) the sum of six pence for every yard in length, reckoning half a yard for the breadth.

And for all silk handkerchiefs so printed, stained, or painted, within or during the term aforesaid, in Great Britain, the sum of one penny for every yard square and in those proportions for wider or narrower silks.

And whereas by an act of parliament made in the sixth year of the reign of his said late majesty King George the First, intituled, An act for enabling the South Sea company to encrease their present capital and fund, by redeeming such publick debts and and incumbrances as are therein mentioned and for raising money, to be applied for lessening several of the publick debts and incumbrances and for calling in the present exchequer bills remaining uncancelled and for making forth new bills in lieu thereof, to be circulated and exchanged upon demand at or near the exchequer the said several rates and duties last mentioned are made perpetual: And whereas some doubts have arisen, whether ribbands and silks so printed, stained, or painted, being less than half a yard in breadth, are within the meaning of the said recited acts, and liable to the said several rates and duties by the said acts imposed: Now, for obviating all such doubts, be it declared by the authority aforesaid, That all ribbands and silks printed, stained, or painted, in Great Britain, though less than half a yard in breadth, are, within the true intent and meaning of the said acts, liable to the several rates and duties by the said two first mentioned acts imposed, according to the proportions in which such ribbands or silks are or shall be made.

VII. And whereas by an act made in this present session of parliament, intituled, An act for allowing the free importation of rice, sago powder, and vermicelli, into this kingdom, from his MajestyÂ’s colonies in North America, for a limited time, it is, amongst other things, enacted, That it shall and may be lawful for any person or persons to import into Great Britain, from any of his MajestyÂ’s colonies in North America, at any time or times before the first day of December, one thousand seven hundred and sixty seven, any rice, without the payment of any subsidy, custom, duty, or imposition whatsoever: Now, to the end the advantage intended to this kingdom, by the said recited act, may not be evaded by the exportation of such rice into foreign parts we your MajestyÂ’s most dutiful and loyal subjects the commons of Great Britain, in parliament assembled, do give and grant unto your Majesty, and do humbly beseech your Majesty that it may be enacted and be it enacted by the authority aforesa id, That for and upon all rice which hath been or shall be, imported into this kingdom duty-free, by virtue of the said recited act, and which shall be again exported thereout, there shall be paid and answered to his Majesty, his heirs, and successors, a subsidy of poundage of six pence in the pound, according to the value or rate set upon rice imported, in the book of rates referred to by the act of the twelfth year of King Charles the Second which said subsidy of six pence in the pound upon such rice so exported, shall be raised, levied, collected, and recovered, by such ways and means, and under such rules, regulations, penalties, and forfeitures, as the subsidy or poundage for any goods or merchandizes exported from Great Britain may be raised, levied, collected, or recovered, by any act of parliament now in force, as fully and effectually, to all intents and purposes, as if the several clauses, powers, directions, penalties, and forfeitures, relating thereto, were particularly rep eated and again enacted into the body of this present act.

VIII. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the said duties granted by this act upon rice exported shall (the necessary charges of management excepted) be paid into the receipt of his MajestyÂ’s exchequer, and be there reserved for the disposition of parliament.

IX. And whereas the permitting foreign lace made of silk or thread and foreign needle-work, to be worn or used in Great Britain, after the same had been seized and condemned, gives the unfair dealer in those commodities, opportunity to secure from seizures great quantities thereof, which are clandestinely imported: Now to prevent a practice so very prejudicial to the publick revenue, and the manufacturers of such goods in this kingdom be it therefore enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the seventh day of July, one thousand seven hundred and sixty seven, no foreign lace made of silk or thread, or foreign needle-work, which shall have been, or shall be, seized and condemned in Great Britain, for any cause of forfeiture, shall be sold or delivered out of any custom-house warehouse wherein the same shall be secured, otherwise than on condition to be exported under the like securities, regulations, and restrictions, penalties, and forfeitures, as are prescribed by law, for t he due exportation of East India goods prohibited to be worn or used in Great Britain any law, custom, or usage to the contrary notwithstanding.

X. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That if any action or suit shall be commenced against any person or persons for any thing done in pursuance of this act, the defendant or defendants, in any such action or suit, may plead the general issue, and give this act, and the special matter, in evidence, at any trial to be had thereupon and that the same was done in pursuance and by the authority of this act and if it shall appear so to have been done, the jury shall find for the defendant or defendants and if the plaintiff shall be nonsuited, or discontinue his action after the defendant or defendants shall have appeared or if judgement shall be given upon any verdict or demurrer against the plaintiff the defendant or defendants shall recover treble costs, and have the like remedy for the same, as any defendant or defendants hath or have in other cases by law.


“Address to the Ladies” Verse from The Boston Post-Boy and Advertiser

This verse, which ran in a Boston newspaper in November 1767, highlights how women were encouraged to take political action by boycotting British goods. Notice that the writer especially encourages women to avoid British tea (Bohea and Green Hyson) and linen, and to manufacture their own homespun cloth. Building on the protest of the 1765 Stamp Act by the Daughters of Liberty, the non-importation movement of 1767–1768 mobilized women as political actors.

Young ladies in town, and those that live round,

Let a friend at this season advise you:

Since money’s so scarce, and times growing worse

Strange things may soon hap and surprize you:

First then, throw aside your high top knots of pride

Wear none but your own country linnen

of economy boast, let your pride be the most

What, if homespun they say is not quite so gay

As brocades, yet be not in a passion,

For when once it is known this is much wore in town,

One and all will cry out, ’tis the fashion!

And as one, all agree that you’ll not married be

To such as will wear London Fact’ry:

But at first sight refuse, tell’em such you do chuse

As encourage our own Manufact’ry.

No more Ribbons wear, nor in rich dress appear,

Love your country much better than fine things,

Begin without passion, ’twill soon be the fashion

To grace your smooth locks with a twine string.

Throw aside your Bohea, and your Green Hyson Tea,

And all things with a new fashion duty

Procure a good store of the choice Labradore,

For there’ll soon be enough here to suit ye

These do without fear and to all you’ll appear

Fair, charming, true, lovely, and cleaver

Tho’ the times remain darkish, young men may be sparkish.

And love you much stronger than ever. !O!

In Massachusetts in 1768, Samuel Adams wrote a letter that became known as the Massachusetts Circular . Sent by the Massachusetts House of Representatives to the other colonial legislatures, the letter laid out the unconstitutionality of taxation without representation and encouraged the other colonies to again protest the taxes by boycotting British goods. Adams wrote, “It is, moreover, [the Massachusetts House of Representatives] humble opinion, which they express with the greatest deference to the wisdom of the Parliament, that the acts made there, imposing duties on the people of this province, with the sole and express purpose of raising a revenue, are infringements of their natural and constitutional rights because, as they are not represented in the Parliament, his Majesty’s Commons in Britain, by those acts, grant their property without their consent.” Note that even in this letter of protest, the humble and submissive tone shows the Massachusetts Assembly’s continued deference to parliamentary authority. Even in that hotbed of political protest, it is a clear expression of allegiance and the hope for a restoration of “natural and constitutional rights.”

Great Britain’s response to this threat of disobedience served only to unite the colonies further. The colonies’ initial response to the Massachusetts Circular was lukewarm at best. However, back in Great Britain, the secretary of state for the colonies—Lord Hillsborough—demanded that Massachusetts retract the letter, promising that any colonial assemblies that endorsed it would be dissolved. This threat had the effect of pushing the other colonies to Massachusetts’s side. Even the city of Philadelphia, which had originally opposed the Circular, came around.

The Daughters of Liberty once again supported and promoted the boycott of British goods. Women resumed spinning bees and again found substitutes for British tea and other goods. Many colonial merchants signed non-importation agreements, and the Daughters of Liberty urged colonial women to shop only with those merchants. The Sons of Liberty used newspapers and circulars to call out by name those merchants who refused to sign such agreements sometimes they were threatened by violence. For instance, a broadside from 1769–1770 reads:

WILLIAM JACKSON,

an IMPORTER

at the BRAZEN HEAD,

North Side of the TOWN-HOUSE,

and Opposite the Town-Pump, [in]

Corn-hill, BOSTON

It is desired that the SONS

and DAUGHTERS of LIBERTY,

would not buy any one thing of

him, for in so doing they will bring

disgrace upon themselves, and their

Posterity, for ever and ever, AMEN.

The boycott in 1768–1769 turned the purchase of consumer goods into a political gesture. It mattered what you consumed. Indeed, the very clothes you wore indicated whether you were a defender of liberty in homespun or a protector of parliamentary rights in superfine British attire.


What Was the Cause of the Townshend Act, and What Were Its Effects?

The cause of the Townshend Acts, a series of measures imposed upon the American colonists, was the British desire to raise revenue, punish the colonists and assert the authority of the British Parliament. The effects of the acts were widespread dissatisfaction, protests, a boycott of British goods and other civil unrest leading up to the Boston Massacre, at which five American civilians were killed by British soldiers.

Charles Townshend, the chancellor of the Eschequer, proposed the series of measures in 1767. The Revenue Act imposed duties on paint, paper, lead, glass and tea imported into the American colonies. It also allowed customs officials to enter private houses and businesses to search for smuggled goods. The Indemnity Act allowed tea from other colonies to be re-exported cheaply from England to America. The Suspending Act effectively dissolved the New York Assembly for failing to finance the quartering of British troops. The Commissioners of Customs Act strengthened the power of the customs offices to collect revenue and enforce customs laws.

These acts contradicted the colonial principle of self-government and provoked so much opposition that in the end, most of the acts were repealed. An uneasy truce and suspension of hostilities ensued. However, the duty on tea was retained, which eventually led to the Boston Tea Party and the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War.


The Townshend Acts

After the Stamp Act was repealed, the relationship between England and the American colonies was still shaky. "Nervous tension" is the term that best describes it. Many issues remained unresolved. It was hard for England to enforce regulations from across the sea. Still, the British Parliament did not want the colonists to think that they were giving up authority over the colonies. So, immediately after repealing the Stamp Act, Parliament issued the Declaratory Act.

The Declaratory Act stated that Parliament had complete control over the governing of the colonies in &ldquoall cases whatsoever.&rdquo The British were not willing to give up any control to the colonies. In the colonies, leaders had been glad when the Stamp Act was repealed, but the Declaratory Act was a new threat to their independence. It was 1766, and to most colonists, the ability of England to tax the colonies without giving them representation in Parliament was seen as disgraceful. The rebellion against the Stamp Act was proof of this view. But the right for Parliament to make laws in other areas was acceptable. The intent of the Declaratory Act was not clear, though. "All cases whatsoever" could surely mean the power to tax. Colonial leaders waited anxiously for the issue to resurface.


As Britain continued to impose taxes on the colonists, reactions turned violent toward tories (colonists loyal to Britain) and British officials.

Sure enough, the "truce" did not last long. Back in London, Charles Townshend persuaded the House of Commons to tax the Americans once again. This time, though, there would be an import tax on such items as glass, paper, lead, and tea.

The Ties that Bind

Charles Townshend had two reasons for introducing new taxes into Parliament. He wanted to collect money from the colonies, but he also wanted more power for Britain. His idea was to use the taxes to pay the colonial governors. This was a big change. Before, the colonies paid their own governors. That way, if people were not satisfied with the governor&rsquos leadership, they could cut his salary. The legislature could basically blackmail the governor into doing what they wanted. Once the salary process changed, the governors could be free to oppose the colonial assemblies. Instead, they would be more tied to Parliament.


Charles Townshend, Chancellor of the Exchequer, sponsored the Townshend Acts. He believed that the Townshend Acts would assert British authority over the colonies as well as increase revenue.

Townshend also created an American Board of Customs Commissioners. Officials from this group would be stationed in the colonies to enforce tax policy on imports and other goods. Customs officials received bonuses for every smuggler that got convicted, so they had reasons to want to catch and capture colonists.

Finally, Townshend began putting pressure on the colonies to obey and support Britain. He even suspended the New York legislature because they did not have enough supplies for the British troops stationed there. As the pressure increased, it seemed like a conflict was bound to happen.

You are Charles Townshend. Write a short letter to the New York legislature telling them why you have decided to shut them down.

Just as they did during the Stamp Act, colonists reacted to the use of force from Britain. Not being allowed to import goods meant that smuggling increased. Tax collectors and merchants who violated the boycotts were often harassed. The colonial assemblies sprang into action to try to improve conditions for their people.

You are a smuggler talking to your 12-year-old son about your business. Do you encourage him to follow in your footsteps? Porque?

Take It Back

In a letter to the other colonies, the Massachusetts legislature recommended that the 13 colonies take action against Parliament. As a response, Parliament voted to dissolve the Massachusetts legislature. But colonial assemblies reacted strongly and voiced support of Massachusetts by supporting the letter. Feelings of disgust for Britain were growing.

More Information on the Massachusetts Circular Letter

Samuel Adams wrote the Massachusetts Circular Letter in 1768. The letter was a petition inviting all of the colonies to unite against Britain. In it, Massachusetts said that it was wrong for England to tax the colonies without giving them representatives in Parliament &mdash &ldquotaxation without representation.&rdquo When news of the letter came to England, Lord Hillsborough warned colonial legislatures against promoting any such ideas. He threatened to remove powers from any colony that joined Massachusetts' campaign. Even so, many legislative assemblies throughout the colonies, including New York, Rhode Island, and New Jersey, spoke out against &ldquotaxation without representation&rdquo and accepted the petition written by Samuel Adams.

The more rules the British tried to enforce, the more the colonists rebelled and resisted. By 1769, British merchants began to feel the sting of nonimportation. They couldn&rsquot possibly make a living. In April 1770, news of a partial repeal reached America. But at least one import tax was still being collected and enforced: the tax on tea.


A Brief History of Townsend

Originally part of an area called Wistequassuck by the Native Americans, the land which eventually became Townsend, Massachusetts was first surveyed by Jonathan Danforth in 1676. The land had been granted to Judge William Hawthorn of Salem as a political thank-you gift. Although the Judge never saw the land, it was known as “Hawthorn’s Grant” for many years.

By 1719, the House of Representatives decided to divide an area called Turkey Hill, of which Hawthorn’s Grant was a part, into North Town (present day Townsend) and South Town (present day Lunenburg). The first meetinghouse to serve the 200 settlers of North Town was built in 1730 on Meetinghouse Hill, and on June 29, 1732 the town was incorporated as Townshend. It was named after Charles Townshend, the second Viscount of Raynham, and a former British Secretary of State (the viscount was also known as Turnip Townshend for introducing England to the large-scale cultivation of said vegetable).

The Second Townsend Meetinghouse, c. 1771 and now the United Methodist Church.

Townsend soon outgrew the first meetinghouse, so in 1771 a new and larger one was erected just behind the first one. After the Revolutionary War growth in the town began to shift to the west. This shift combined with earlier boundary changes moved the geographic center of the town. The people wanted their meetinghouse more centrally located so the second meetinghouse, the larger building, was moved in 1804 to Townsend Center. The first floor of the meetinghouse was used as the town hall until the 1890s, when Memorial Hall was built to commemorate those residents who fought in the Civil War. Today, the meetinghouse is home to the Methodist Church. (The church has been renovated recently, and the old slave pews were preserved.)

In 1733, a dam was built on the Squannacook River at the place now known as Townsend Harbor (“harbor” originally referring to a place of refuge, comfort, security, or a seat of local business, though it also is located on the pond created in building the dam and is now materially a “harbor” of sorts). A gristmill and sawmill were erected near the dam. The Harbor was the first part of Townsend to be settled even prior to the incorporation of the town. A tavern was built by the Conant family around 1720, known as the Old Mansion or Conant House. Throughout the 18th and early 19th centuries, Townsend Harbor was the industrial heart of the town. The Conant House, the Grist Mill, the Cooperage and the Reed House all date from the late 18th and early 19th centuries and can still be seen today around Harbor Pond.

The Spaulding Cooperage as seen in the late nineteenth century when the South Street bridge was a simple wooden structure spanning the Squannacook River.

Up until 1744, the only schooling that most children received was what their parents could give them at home. However, in 1744 the town voted to raise and appropriate 20 pounds for the support of three schools. As the years passed and Townsend grew, small school houses were built throughout the town. Some are still standing today. In the late 19th century, the large white building on the corner of School, Howard, and Highland Streets — now home to Evans on the Common — was built and used as a school. In the 1830’s, the West Village Female Seminary was built, which helped West Townsend become the cultural center of the town. Unfortunately, it eventually failed for financial reasons.

In 1767, the Townshend Acts, proposed by Charles Townshend’s grandson, were passed by England’s Parliament. These acts placed a tax on common items imported by the colonies. These acts further infuriated the colonists who were already suffering under the Stamp Acts of 1765. Eventually, most of the Townshend Acts were repealed, but the seed for revolution had been planted. When the British marched on Concord on April 19, 1775, word was received in Townshend that afternoon. A cannon was fired on the common, calling out the alarm. Townshend sent seventy-three soldiers to Concord, nearly 10% of the population of 821 (1776 census). These men were gone twenty-one days, at which time they were called back to root out reported Tories in Townshend. One result of the new mood of animosity toward England was that several Tory properties were confiscated and sold. Another was that as the war progressed and patriotism took root, the “h” began to drop out of the spelling of the town’s name in the written record, and by the 1780s Townsend was the accepted spelling.

As the 19th century progressed, most commercial and manufacturing interests moved closer to the center of town. These interests included the production of stockings, clothing, pails and tubs. But the major industry in Townsend was the production of coopering stock. The B. and A.D. Fessenden Company became the largest employer in the town, running lumberyards and sawmills in addition to the cooperage factory for three generations. When the company finally closed in 1960, most of the building was taken down. Later the remainder burned completely. However, the Historical Society acquired a cooper shed from the old Fressenden site and moved it to the Reed House where it is awaiting a firmer foundation.

The development of West Townsend was linked to the stagecoach turnpike which passed through the area on its way to western Massachusetts and New Hampshire. Several taverns were built, and by 1806, the Joslinville Tavern (the big mansion at the corner of Main Street and West Meadow Road — now 519 Main Street) was a main lunch stop on the Boston to Keene Stagecoach. The railroad came to Townsend in 1846 and had a unifying effect on the town. Many of the goods manufactured in town were now shipped via the railroad, which further enhanced the development of these industries. By 1900, three trains ran in and out of town each day.

The Townsend Center Depot as seen in the early twentieth century. The Peterboro and Shirley Railroad was constructed in 1847 and connected the three local hamlets.

With a quick mode of transportation now available, farms were able to increase their production. Cranberries were raised in a bog off Spaulding Street the Harbor Farm on Main Street produced milk, apples and produce and several poultry farms became major suppliers to the New England egg market. Many of these businesses lasted well into the 20th century. The booming manufacturing and agriculture industries created other needs. By 1871, the town district schools made way for its first high school located near the center which also housed primary and intermediate grades. The first bank was chartered in 1854, and the fire department was established in 1875. The first police department came fifty years later in 1926.

As was true all across New England, by the middle of the 20th century many of the manufacturing and agricultural businesses began to slow. The train ran only three times a week. The Fessenden Company closed in 1960. The poultry industry waned until only one farm remained in operation in the 1970s. The last Boston and Maine train left Townsend in 1981.

By the end of the century, Sterilite was the largest industry remaining in town. With the decrease in industry, Townsend has become a residential community with many of the requisite service providers while retaining much of its rural character. The town adopted its governing charter in 1999, and Memorial Hall was beautifully restored ten years later. In 2007, Townsend celebrated its 275th anniversary with many activities, culminating with a grand parade in September of that year. Townsend continues to make history each and every day and we’ll be sure to share it with you as it enters our collections.

Townsend in the Future as seen in an early twentieth century postcard.


The Townshend Acts

The Townshend Acts (or the Townshend agir) refers to a set of taxes passed by Parliament in 1767 after the Stamp Act caused rebellion and riots on both sides of the Atlantic.

The colonists especially were infuriated and boycotted British goods.

The ring leaders of the boycott were Samuel Adams and John Dickinson. Their actions forced King George to repeal the Stamp Act.

Directly afterwards, in Parliament, a man named Charles Townshend, suggested what is now known as the Townshend Acts, taxing the colonies for tea, glass, lead, paints, and paper.

Charles Townshend, painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds around 1765<. There’s a lot of Charles Townshends. It was difficult to find the right one. | Image is in the public domain.

The Stamp Act, which taxed an even wider selection of products, had been imposed to service the debt Britain had accumulated during the French and Indian War, which King George and most of Parliament felt had been fought to the great benefit of the colonists. Thus, they believed the colonies should help carry the expenses of the war.

Thus, the colonies could not object to these taxes, being much less than the Stamp Act and simply paying for Britain’s defense of the colonies. Or so the king thought the colonies completely objected. When the king sent his troops over to make sure they paid these new taxes, it stirred up opposition and boycotts.

The Townshend Acts and the Boston Tea Party

The Townshend Acts were repealed early in 1773, but their taxes on tea remained in force. In fact, the colonists had been boycotting British tea since their passing in 1767. So when the Tea Act, passed in May of that year, allowed the Dutch East India Company to deliver tea at reduced tax rates and without duties, it put the colonists over the edge.

In November, when a large shipment of East India Company tea arrived, colonists dressed up as Indians threw thousands of pounds worth of British tea into Boston harbor, an event we know as the Boston Tea Party.


Townshend Acts

o Townshend Acts ( / ˈ t aʊ n z ən d / ) [1] or Townshend Duties, refers to a series of British acts of Parliament passed during 1767 and 1768 relating to the British colonies in America. They are named after Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer who proposed the program. Historians vary slightly as to which acts they include under the heading "Townshend Acts", but five are often listed: [2]

    passed on 5 June 1767 passed on 26 June 1767 passed on 29 June 1767 passed on 29 June 1767 passed on 6 July 1768

The purposes of the acts were to:

  • raise revenue in the colonies to pay the salaries of governors and judges so that they would remain loyal to Great Britain
  • create more effective means of enforcing compliance with trade regulations
  • punish the Province of New York for failing to comply with the 1765 Quartering Act
  • establish the precedent that the British Parliament had the right to tax the colonies [3]

The Townshend Acts were met with resistance in the colonies, which eventually resulted in the Boston Massacre of 1770. They placed an indirect tax on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea, all of which had to be imported from Britain. This form of revenue generation was Townshend's response to the failure of the Stamp Act of 1765, which had provided the first form of direct taxation placed upon the colonies. However, the import duties proved to be similarly controversial. Colonial indignation over the acts was expressed in John Dickinson's Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania and in the Massachusetts Circular Letter. There was widespread protest, and American port cities refused to import British goods, so Parliament began to partially repeal the Townshend duties. [4] In March 1770, most of the taxes from the Townshend Acts were repealed by Parliament under Frederick, Lord North. However, the import duty on tea was retained in order to demonstrate to the colonists that Parliament held the sovereign authority to tax its colonies, in accordance with the Declaratory Act of 1766. The British government continued to tax the American colonies without providing representation in Parliament. American resentment, corrupt British officials, and abusive enforcement spurred colonial attacks on British ships, including the burning of the Gaspee in 1772. The Townshend Acts' taxation on imported tea was enforced once again by the Tea Act of 1773, and this led to the Boston Tea Party in 1773 in which Bostonians destroyed a shipment of taxed tea. Parliament responded with severe punishments in the Intolerable Acts of 1774. The Thirteen Colonies drilled their militia units, and war finally erupted in Lexington and Concord in April 1775, launching the American Revolution.


Assista o vídeo: Parliament Taxes the Colonies Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Townshend Acts


Comentários:

  1. Shagis

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  2. Rayder

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  3. Ashton

    Sim!

  4. Jarrod

    Tópico encantador

  5. Zolojinn

    Foi interessante ler, mas foi escrito um pouco seco. Consulte Mais informação :)

  6. Gulkree

    Você é o homem abstrato

  7. Gojind

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